|Moments In Time
Special Issue January 2001
From 1901 until 1911, more than 9 million immigrants will enter
the United States, increasing the nation's population by more than
10 percent during the first decade of the 20th century.
President McKinley dies of gangrene eight days after being shot
by Leo Czolgosz. Teddy Roosevelt, 42, is sworn in as this nation's
John Steinbeck is born.
The first Nobel prizes are awarded.
Queen Victoria dies at age 81 after reigning nearly 64 years as
monarch of the British empire.
The world population is 1.7 billion.
Life expectancy for white males in the U.S. is 48 years, for white
females, 51 years.
Baseball's American League is created.
Instant coffee is invented.
The first Studebaker is introduced for sale to the public.
Benjamin Harrison, the 23rd President of the United States, dies.
Up from Slavery, by Booker T. Washington, is published.
I Love You Truly is a popular song.
Obesity and heart disease are reported to be connected for the
first time following a medical study.
Guglielmo Marconi transmits the first transatlantic wireless message.
The Locomobile, the first U.S. car to use heat-formed steel alloys,
is introduced to the public for sale.
J.C. Penney Co. is founded by James Cash Penney.
Cuba gains independence from Spain.
Tifffany & Co. founder, Charles Lewis Tiffany, dies at age 80.
Buster Brown, a comic-strip adventure, debuts in the New York Herald.
The first Rose Bowl football game is played on January 1 in Pasadena,
California. Michigan defeats Stanford 48 to 0.
The teddy bear is introduced for sale to the public.
Willis Haviland Carrier designs an air-cooling system that pioneers
modern air conditioning.
Barnum's Animal Crackers are introduced for sale to the public.
Pepsi Cola is founded in North Carolina by Caleb Bradharm.
An insurrection against Constantinople ends after Greeks, Serbs,
and Bulgarians ravage the country.
V.I. Lenin forms the Bolshevicks after renouncing membership in
Massachusetts introduces the first automobile license plates.
Singer Manufacturing sells 1.4 million sewing machines.
Texaco drills its first oil-producing well in Sour Lake, Texas.
The Chadwick, an automobile designed by Lee Sherman Chadwick, is
introduced for sale to the public. The 24-horse-power vehicle exceeds
speeds of 60 miles per hour and sells for $4,000.
Wilbur and Orville Wright make the first sustained flight in an
A typhoid epidemic in New York is traced to Mary Mallon, "Typhoid
Mary", a carrier of the disease who works at jobs handling
food, often under an assumed name.
The first Harley Davidson motorcycle is manufactured by William
Harley and William Davidson.
Ransom Olds drives an automobile a measured mile in 1 minute and
The Wizard of Oz, a musical, opens on Broadway.
President Roosevelt is elected in a landslide victory over Alton
Montgomery Ward mails out more than 3 million catalogs.
More than 1,000 die, when the paddle-wheeler S.S. General Slocum
catches fire on the Hudson River. The captain is sentenced to 10
years hard labor for criminal negligence.
The Cadillac Motor Company is created.
Manuel Guerro is elected President of the new Republic of Panama.
Marie Curie discovers radium in pitchlende (uranium) ore.
Frankie and Johnny is a popular song.
Helen Keller, 23, graduates magna cum laude from Radcliffe.
The Olympics are held in St. Louis.
The Gillette razor is patented.
Fire destroys more than 1,000 buildings in Baltimore.
Cy Young pitches the first major league no-hitter for the Boston
The hamburger, chopped beef fried and sold by German immigrants,
becomes popular at the St. Louis Exposition.
Russian forces surrender to Japanese infantry at Port Arthur.
A peace treaty between Russia and Japan, negotiated by President
Roosevelt, is signed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
Norway gains independence from Sweden.
The Supreme Court rules a law limiting work in the baking industry
to 60 hours per week unconstitutional.
U.S. automakers produce 25,000 vehicles.
The first taxicabs are introduced in Paris.
The Wright brothers fly 24.5 miles in 38 minutes in an exhibition
in Dayton, Ohio.
Albert Einstein publishes his theory of relativity.
Novocaine is introduced into medical use.
Compulsory vaccination laws are ruled constitutional by the Supreme
Vick's Vapor Rub is introduced on the public market.
L. C. Smith and Brothers sells its first typewriter to the New
York Tribune for newsroom work.
William Randolph Hearst buys Cosmopolitan for $400,000.
Ty Cobb signs with the Detroit Tigers to begin his baseball career.
Clair de Lune, by Claude Debussy, is published.
The U.S. dancer Isodora Dungan gives birth to a child out of wedlock.
Russia, France, England and Italy withdraw their forces from Crete
and the island becomes a part of Greece.
Japanese forces occupy Korea after a state of insurrection.
Two wire reports say Robert E. Perry reached the North Pole. Neither
will ever prove he did.
The Sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution, granting an income
tax, is submitted for ratification to the 46 states.
General Motors buys the Cadillac Co. from Henry Leland for $4.5
George Pepperdine founds Western Auto Supply Company.
Bakelite, the world's first polymer, is developed by Leo Bakeland,
an American chemist.
The 2,600 newspapers in the U.S. serve 90 million people.
The London Symphony gives its first performance.
The Pittsburg Pirates defeat the Detroit Tigers 4 games to 3 to
win the World Series.
Writer Rose Cecil O'Neil patents the Kewpie Doll.
Strawberries are frozen for transport to markets.
A field goal in football is reduced from a value of 4 points to
The Portugese monarchy founded in 1143 ends following a revolution.
The average salary of U.S. workers is less than $15 per week. The
average worker labors 56 to 60 hours per week.
Race riots occur in New York, Houston, and Boston after the "great
white hope" James J. Jefferies challenges heavyweight champion
Jack Johnson and loses.
A bomb explodes at the Los Angeles Times, killing 20 people. James
McNamara and his brother John are arrested and charged with setting
the bomb to silence opposition to organized labor. Both men confess.
A Constitutional amendment in Washington state grants women the
right to vote.
Barney Oldfield sets a 131.7 mile-per-hour speed record at Daytona
Writer Daniel Carter Beard founds the Boy Scouts of America.
Down By the Old Mill Stream is a popular song.
Fathers' Day is observed for the first time.
"Every day in every way, I'm growing better and better,"
proclaims Emile Coule, a pharmacist promoting auto-suggestive healing.
The Miami Herald begins publication.
Rewards and Fairies, by Rudyard Kipling, is published.
Irving Berlin writes Alexander's Ragtime Band.
Norwegian explorer Roland Armundsen reaches the South Pole.
Women in California gain the right to vote.
The U.S. Immigration Commission issues a report recommending the
restriction of immigration.
First transcontinental flight from New York to California is made
by Calbraith P. Rodgers.
U.S. orders 20,000 soldiers to Mexican border.
China's Yangtze River floods, killing more than 100,000.
American composer and musician W.C. Handy publishes first blues
composition, The Memphis Blues.
The Philadelphia Athletics defeat the New York Giants 4 games to
2 to win the World Series.
Mack Sennett founds the Keystone Motion Picture Co.
The Innocense of Father Brown, a detective mystery by G.K. Chesterton,
is published. Ethan Frome, by Edith Wharton, is published.
The New York Public Library opens.
Hiram Bingham discovers the Inca city Marchu Picchu in Peru.
Andre Jaeger-Smith circles the earth from Paris to Paris, by ship
and rail, in 39 days and 19 hours.
The first Indianapolis 500 is held. A Mormon Wasp wins with an
average speed of 75 miles per hour.
W. C. Durant founds Chev-rolet Motor Company.
President Wilson vetoes bill requiring literacy test for immigrants.
Congress establishes U.S. Coast Guard.
England declares blockade of German ports.
U.S. protests England's blockade of German ports as interfering
with neutral trade. English passenger ship Lusitania is sunk by
U.S. protests German blockade around British Isles.
German submarine sinks U.S. tanker Gulflight.
German teacher Erich Muenter explodes bomb in U.S. Senate reception
German Navy torpedoes U.S. vessel William C. Frye in route to England
Adolph Hitler, an Austrian sign painter, enlists in German Army.
Long distance telephone service connects New York and California.
U.S. demands end to attacks on unarmed merchant and passenger vessels.
German submarine sinks U.S. merchant vessel Leelanow off coast
Wireless communication between U.S. and Japan is completed.
U.S. loans $500 million to England and France.
President Wilson requests standing army of 142,000 and reserve
Booker T. Washington dies.
Austrian submarine sinks Italian liner carrying 27 American passengers.
Mexican General Pancho Villa forces 18 mining engineers off train
and shoots them.
Automobile owners offer rides for a nickel.
The Genius, a novel by Theodore Dreiser, is published.
The Birth of a Nation, produced by D.W. Griffith, is shown in American
President Wilson increases standing army to 175,000.
Teddy Roosevelt declines nomination for president by the Progressive
Charles Evans Hughes is nominated as the Republican candidate for
U.S. warns Germany that diplomatic relations will be severed if
attacks on passenger vessels continue.
Germany pledges not to sink merchant and passenger vessels.
German submarine sinks French passenger vessel killing three Americans.
Pancho Villa invades New Mexico with 1,500 soldiers killing 17
Americans. U.S. troops pursue Villa across Mexican border.
U.S. troops are attacked at Carrizol, Mexico. U.S. troops retreat
toward United States border.
Congressional bill prohibits the transportation of goods produced
by children across state lines.
Jeanett Rankin of Montana becomes first woman elected to the House
Woodrow Wilson is elected for second term.
Submachine gun is invented.
John Fitzgerald Kennedy, second son of Joseph P. and Rose Fitzgerald
Kennedy, is born.
U.S. purchases Virgin Islands from Denmark for $25 million.
German submarine sinks American ship Housatonic.
U.S. troops along Mexican border recalled.
Puerto Rico becomes part of U.S.
German submarine sinks U.S. merchant ship Algonquin.
Czar Nicholas II of Russia abdicates.
German submarines sink American ships Illinois, Healdton, Vigilante
and City of Memphis.
President Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany.
Ragtime composer and muscian Scott Joplin dies.
U.S. declares war on Germany.
Congress authorizes registration and draft of all men 21 to 30.
Bolshevicks, under the leadership of V.I. Lenin, overthrow Russian
U.S. declares war on Austria-Hungary.
The Innocents, by novelist Sinclair Lewis, is published.
Women in New York are given right to vote by state constitutional
King Cool, by novelist Upton Sinclair, is published.
Chrome Yellow, a novel by Aldous Huxley, is published.
Parker Brothers introduces the fountain pen Big Red.
Butter prices fall to 29 cents a pound, from 75 cents during the
Famine kills 3 million Russians.
Secretary of the Navy, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, is stricken with
Heart disease becomes the leading cause of death in the U.S., pushing
tuberculosis to second place.
GM's share of the automobile market reaches 12 percent.
Little Lord Fauntlaroy starring Mary Pickford, opens at movie theaters.
Model T Fords account for 61 percent of automobile sales.
Margaret Sanger founds the American Birth Control League.
Samuel Gompers is elected President of the American Federation
of Labor for the 40th time.
Japanese primeminister Takashi Hara is assassinated.
Southern Ireland gains dominion from Britain.
An editorial in the New York Times explains that rockets cannot
possibly work because there is nothing in outer space for a rocket's
exhaust to push against.
Novelist Agatha Christie introduces Belgian detective Hercule Poirot
in the murder mystery The Mysterious Affair at Styles.
Bullfighter Manuel Granero is killed in a ring in Madrid.
I'm Just Wild About Harry, by songwriters Eubie Blake and Noble
Sissle, is a popular song.
Japan returns the Shandong province to China.
The Kingdom of Egypt is proclaimed following the termination of
Britain as protectorate.
Benito Mussolini forms a fascist dictatorship in Italy.
Germany's stock market collapses, the marc falls from 162 to a
dollar to more than 7,000 to the dollar. •Henry Ford makes more
than $250,000 per day.
Ford Motor Co. acquires the Lincoln Motor Co. from Henry M. Leland.
Hudson introduces the first closed sedan.
Army Air Corps lieutenant makes the first coast to coast flight
in less than a day, flying from Florida to California in 21 hours
and 28 minutes.
Howard Carter and George Molyneux discover the tomb of Egypt's
The cancer death rate is 87 per 100,000, up from 63 in 1900.
Insulin is created from the pancreatic juice of canines.
The British Broadcasting Company is founded.
The first Thom McCann shoe store opens.
Robin Hood, starring Douglas Fairbanks, opens at movie theaters.
Ulysses, by author James Joyce, is published.
The first Readers' Digest is published.
The New York Giants defeat the New York Yankees 4 games to 0 to
win the World Series.
Adolph Hitler stages a protest in Munich as the marc falls below
1 trillion to the dollar.
V.I. Lenin establishes the first Soviet forced-labor camp.
Pan American World Airways is founded as a New York City plane
Hank Williams is born in Georgiana, Alabama.
Wilhelm Messerschmitt establishes a German Aircraft manufacturing
The autogyro, the first functioning helicopter, is invented by
Juan de la Cierva.
U.S. auto production reaches 3,780,358, up from 543,679 in 1914.
Walter P. Chrysler becomes president of the Maxwell Motor Co.
Zenith Radio is founded by Eugene F. McDonald Jr.
The first edition of Time magazine is published.
A.C. Nielson Co., a market research ratings corporation, is found
by Arthur Charles Nielson.
The Prophet, by mystic Kahilil Gibran, is published.
The Hunchback of Notre Dame, starring Lon Chaney, opens at American
The New York Yankees' Stadium, built for $2.5 million, opens to
a sell-out crowd. Babe Ruth hits a three-run homer in the third.
The Yankees beat the Boston Red Sox 4 to 1.
Yes, We Have No Bananas, by Frank Silva and Irving Cohn, becomes
a popular song.
Woodrow Wilson, 28th President of the U.S., dies.
Republican Calvin Coolidge is re-elected president.
Herman Melville's novel Billy Budd is published.
Immigration Act lowers quota to two percent of nationalities already
in U.S. Japanese immigrants are totally excluded.
George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blues is recorded and distributed
Roger Hornsby of the St. Louis Cardinals sets a National League
batting average of .424.
International Business Machines, IBM, is established.
The first Macy's Thanksgiving Day parade is held.
Synthetic gasoline is invented.
The first Chrysler automobile is built by Maxwell Motor Co. The
car has four-wheel hydraulic brakes and a high compression engine.
Ford produces nearly two million Model T's. More than half the
cars in the world are Model T Fords.
Metro-Goldwin-Mayer is founded.
The comic strip Little Orphan Annie appears in the New York Daily
The New York Herald-Tribune begins publication.
John Scopes, a teacher from Dayton, Tennessee, is taken to court
for breaking state laws banning the teaching of evolution. Defended
by Clarence Darrow, Scopes loses the case and is fined $100.
Nellie Taylor Ross of Wyoming becomes first female governor in
The Coconuts, starring the Marx Brothers, opens on Broadway.
U.S. Marines leave Nicaragua after a 13-year occupation.
More than 40,000 members of the Ku Klux Klan march down Pennsylvania
Avenue in Washington D.C. in political demonstration.
Theodore Drieser's novel An American Tragedy is published. •Don
Q Son of Zorro, starring Douglas Fairbanks, opens at U.S. movie
Chrysler Corp. is created by reorganization of Maxwell Motor Co.
The first issue of Cosmopolitan is published.
Mein Kempf by Adolph Hitler is published.
A 35 millimeter camera is invented.
Lou Gehrig joins the New York Yankees as first baseman.
The Grand Ole Opry goes on the air as WSM Barn Dance featuring
22-year-old Roy Acuff.
The Charleston is introduced and becomes a dance craze.
F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel The Great Gatsby is published.
A hurricane destroys the Florida Keys link of the East Coast Railway.
Greyhound Bus Corp. is established.
The Pontiac automobile is introduced by General Motors.
The Model T Ford sells for $350.
The first successful demonstration of television is given.
The first motion picture with sound is demonstrated.
Norma Jean Baker is born. Norma Jean will become film star Marilyn
NBC is founded.
Winnie-the-Pooh, by A.A. Milne, is published.
Painter Claude Monet dies at age 86.
Screen star Rudolph Valentino dies. More than 100,000 mourners
view his remains.
Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy star in Hal Roach's Putting Pants
Muskrat Ramble becomes a popular song.
Miniature golf is invented in Tennessee by Frieda Carter.
Charles Edward Anderson Berry is born in Wentzville, Missouri.
Charles will become Chuck Berry, a founder of rock and roll.
Illegal liquor traffic is a $4 billion business.
The St. Louis Cardinals defeat the New York Yankees 4 games to
3 to win the World Series.
Olympic champion Gertrude Ederle becomes the first woman to swim
the English Channel.
Charles Lindbergh flies The Spirit of St. Louis from New York to
Paris in 33 hours and 29 minutes.
The first Golden Gloves boxing tournament is held.
Babe Ruth hits his sixtieth homerun to set a record that will stand
for 34 years.
The Supreme Court rules that illegal income is taxable.
The Mississippi Valley floods, causing more than $250,000 in damages.
Vitamin D is patented.
Television gets its first U.S. demonstration.
Wonder Bread is introduced by Continental Baking Co.
Der Steppenwolf, by novelist Hermann Hesse, is published.
Borden introduces homogenized milk.
Herbert Hoover is elected president in a landslide victory with
58 percent of the vote to Al Smith's 41 percent.
Plymouth automobiles are introduced by Chrysler.
Floods in Vermont kill more than 100.
Al Capone's income is $105 million.
The Jazz Singer, the first full-length talky, opens at U.S. theaters.
The General, starring Buster Keaton, opens at U.S. movie theaters.
The first all-electric jukeboxes are introduced by Automatic Instrument
Penicillin proves to have antibacterial properties.
Amelia Earhart becomes first woman to make solo flight across Atlantic.
CBS is founded.
The first regularly scheduled television program is broadcasted.
D.H. Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover is published.
Strange Interlude, a play by Eugene O'Neill, opens at New York's
John Golden Theater. The play is 2 hours and 40 minutes long with
an 80 minute dinner intermission.
Mickey Mouse is introduced in Steamboat Willie, an animated talking
Amos ‘n' Andy, starring white actors Freeman Gosden and Charles
Correll, premieres on radio.
Lawrence Welk, 24, starts a small band.
The Olympic Games at Amsterdam attract 3,905 contestants from 46
Johnny Weissmuller wins 3 gold medals and sets 67 world records
at the Olympic Games. Weissmuller will star in 19 Tarzan movies.
The New York Yankees win the World Series by defeating the Cardinals
4 games to 0.
Antonio Domino is born in New Orleans. Antonio will become Fats
Domino, a founder of rock and roll.
Seagram's Distillers Corp. is founded.
Floods kill 450 in California.
An estimated 1,600 Americans die from drinking bad liquor.
A Florida hurricane kills an estimated 1,800.
Bubble gum is test marketed in U.S.
Peter Pan peanut butter is introduced on public market.
New York Stock Exchange collapses wiping out more than $30 billion
Six Chicago gangsters are lined against a wall and gunned down
in St. Valentine's Day Massacre.
Stardust, by Hoagy Car-michael, is a popular song.
Acting on a complaint by the Daughters of the American Revolution,
New York City police raid Birth Control Research center established
by Margaret Sanger.
Richard E. Byrd makes first flight over South Pole.
First house trailer is displayed in New York City.
A Farewell to Arms, by Ernest Hemingway, is published.
The U.S. has 20 million telephones.
In annual message to Congress, President Hoover declares that confidence
in big business has been reestablished.
Look Homeward Angel, by Thomas Wolfe, is published.
Popeye appears as cartoon for the first time.
The average weekly wage for U.S. workers is $28.
Joseph Stalin expels Leon Trosky from the Soviet Union.
A Mississippi mob burns an accused black rapist alive. The death
is attributed to unknown causes. Mississippi Governor Theodore Bilbo
says the state doesn't have the time or money to investigate the
Ford Motor Co. introduces the first station wagon, nicknamed the
Woody because of its wooden body.
Pluto is discovered and named.
The Veterans Administration is established.
Democrats gain control of the House.
William Faulkner's As I Lay Dying is published.
National Poll shows majority favors repeal of Prohibition.
Congress passes bill authorizing $300 million for state road construction.
Sixty branches of the Bank of the United States close in New York
The Maltese Falcon, by author Dashiell Hammett, is published.
State Department prohibits immigration of all foreign laborers.
Customs officials seize James Joyce's novel Ulysses on the grounds
that it is obscene.
A weekly audience of 80 to 100 million attend U.S. movie theaters.
The jobless and homeless begin gathering in makeshift shelters
of cardboard and scrap wood and metal on the outskirts of major
U.S. cities. •Ray Charles Robinson is born in Albany, Georgia. Ray
will become Ray Charles, a founder of rock and roll.
The U.S. population is 124 million.
Thomas Edison dies.
The Star-Spangled Banner is designated as the national anthem.
Construction of the Empire State Building is completed.
Hugh Herndon and Clyde Pangmorn make first non-stop Trans-Pacific
flight from Japan to Washington state.
Eugene O'Neill's play Morning Becomes Electra opens in New York
In annual message to Congress, President Hoover requests emergency
relief funds to establish programs for the homeless and the unemployed.
Al Capone is convicted of income tax evasion and sentenced to 11
years in prison.
Japan invades Manchuria.
The Good Earth, by author Pearl Buck, is published.
Felix the Cat makes his first appearance in a comic strip. The
cat has appeared in animated cartoons since 1912.
Alka-Seltzer is invented.
The six-cylinder Chevrolet sells for $475.
Dick Tracy makes his first appearance as a comic strip character.
Gambling is legalized in Nevada.
Football legend Knute Rockne dies in a plane crash.
Little Orphan Annie premieres on the radio.
U.S. movie theaters begin showing double features.
Mood Indigo, by Duke Ellington, is a popular song.
Charles Jr., 20-month-old son of Charles Lindbergh, is kidnapped.
Despite payment of a $50,000 ransom, the baby is found murdered
2 months later. Bruno Hauptman is executed in 1936 by electric chair
for the crime.
Japanese troops, warships, and bombers continue attack on China,
killing thousands of civilians. Japanese leaders warn U.S. that
any attempt to interfere with Japan's attack of China would be cause
Franklin Delano Roosevelt defeats Herbert Hoover in landslide victory
in presidential election.
Mahatma Gandhi begins fast to protest British treatment of India's
lowest caste, the untouchables. After 6 days of fasting, Gandhi
obtains an agreement that improves the status of that caste.
U.S. automobile sales fall from 5 million to 1 million.
Route 66 links Chicago and Los Angeles.
Richard Pennimum is born in Macon, Georgia. Richard will become
Little Richard, a founder of rock and roll.
Dearborn, Michigan police fire into a crowd of men, women, and
children demonstrating for higher wages and improved working conditions
outside the Ford Motor Company plant. Four are killed. More than
a hundred are wounded.
More than 25,000 poverty stricken war veterans demonstrate outside
the White House, demanding bonuses authorized by Congress in 1924.
Army tanks, gas bombs, and armed infantry disperse the veterans.
The violence results in more than 100 casualties, including women
and children. •The average U.S. weekly wage falls to $17.
More than 1,600 U.S. banks fail.
U.S. unemployment reaches more than 16 million.
Assassin's bullet misses President Roosevelt.
Congress submits 21st Amendment, for repeal of prohibition, to
states for ratification.
Ranger, the first U.S. aircraft carrier, is launched at Newport
Newsweek begins publication.
Frances Perkins becomes first woman Cabinet member when she is
appointed Secretary of Labor. •President Roosevelt declares nationwide
embargo on gold, silver, and currency.
Fay Wray stars in King Kong.
Federal Emergency Relief Act authorizes grants to states for relief
Tennessee Valley Authority is established to construct dams and
power plants along Tennessee Valley.
U.S. Employment Service is created.
U.S. abandons gold standard.
Albert Einstein arrives in U.S.
Germany withdraws from Disarmament Conference in Geneva.
AFL boycotts all German-made products to protest Nazi treatment
The Marx Brothers star in Duck Soup.
The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas by novelist Gertrude Stein,
President Roosevelt asks Congress for $10.5 billion to continue
Bank of Washington establishes Civil Works Emergency Relief Act
to provide funds for federal work programs.
Henry Ford restores $5 per day minimum wage to workers.
Public Enemy No. 1, John Dillinger, is gunned down by the FBI.
Tender is the Night , by F. Scott Fitzgerald, is published.
To escape the dust bowl, tens of thousands from Arkansas and Oklahoma
migrate to California.
Censorship of movies begins.
Congress establishes the Federal Housing Administration.
Security and Exchange Commission is established.
John Hilton's novel Goodbye, Mr. Chips is published.
U.S. Marines leave Haiti, ending a 19-year occupation.
Philippine Islands is granted independence by U.S.
Cuba is released from status of U.S. protectorate.
Bill W. begins Alcoholics Anonymous, the first twelve-step program.
Membership will increase from one to an estimated four million in
the U.S. and ten million worldwide before the end of the century.
Elvis Presley is born in a shack in Tupelo, Mississippi. His identical
twin brother, Jessie, is stillborn. Elvis will become known as the
"King of Rock and Roll."
Works Progress Administration is established.
Social Security Act is signed by president.
Will Rogers dies in plane crash.
Senator Huey Long of Louisiana is assassinated in Baton Rouge.
Musical Porgy and Bess, by George Gershwin, opens in New York City.
Commonwealth of the Philippines inaugurates first president, Manuel
Of Time and the River, by novelist Thomas Wolfe, is published.
Emergency Relief Appropriation authorizes $5 billion for work relief
and to increase employment.
Resettlement Administration is established to support farm families.
Jerry Lee Lewis is born in Ferriday, Louisiana. Jerry will become
an early innovator of rock and roll.
American sprinter Jesse Owens wins three gold medals at Berlin Olympics,
dispelling hopes of Nazis to win propaganda victories.
Charles Hardin Holley is born in Lubbock, Texas. Charles will become
Buddy Holly, a legendary innovator of rock and roll.
Joe DiMaggio signs with the New York Yankees, beginning a 13-year
Weejuns, introduced at $12 a pair, begins a fad for slip-on moccasin
Charles "Lucky" Luciano is sentenced to 30 to 50 years
in prison after jury conviction for compulsory prostitution.
Folk singer Woody Guthrie crosses U.S. urging people to vote against
public power projects.
Construction of the Boulder Dam is completed, creating 115-mile-long
The fictitious "Betty Crocker" is introduced by General
The U.S. population is 127 million.
Goodnight Irene, by former chain gang member Howie "Lead Belly"
Ledbetter, is published and becomes a popular song.
The Ziegfield Follies, a musical starring Bob Hope and Eve Arden,
opens on Broadway.
The Petrified Forest, starring Leslie Howard and Humphrey Bogart,
opens at American movie theaters.
Absalomi Absalomi, by novelist William Faulkner, is published.
Aldous Huxley's Eyeless in Gaza is published.
How to Win Friends and Influence People, by Dale Carnegie, is published.
•Life magazine begins publication.
BBC establishes the first electronic television system.
Mercedes Benz introduces passenger car that operates on diesel
The Ford V-8 is introduced.
Forty percent of U.S. families have incomes of less than $1,000
per year. The U.S. poverty line is $1,330.
Heinrich Himmles takes over the Nazi Gestapo.
Russian leader Josef Stalin begins purge of Communist party resulting
in the deaths of more than 10 million Soviets.
Japanese forces invade China.
Germany's Buchewald concentration camp opens. The first inmates
are members of every religious belief.
John D. Rockefeller dies at age 97.
Japanese bombers attack U.S. and British ships near Nanking.
Germany orders Jews to wear yellow badges displaying six-pointed
star and bans them from all public places.
Standard Oil drills its first offshore oil well.
The German zeppelin Hindenburg burns on arrival at Lakehurst, New
Jersey, killing 36, ending transatlantic travel by hydrogen gas
Amelia Earhart disappears on Pacific flight.
The Golden Gate Bridge opens, linking San Francisco with Marin
Isuzu Motors is founded in Tokyo.
Diabetics are successfully treated with insulin for the first time.
Xerography, a dry-copying process for duplication of office papers,
Look magazine begins publication.
To Have and Have Not, by Ernest Hemingway, is published.
Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck, is published.
Color film in 35-millimeter cartridges is introduced.
The Guiding Light, a radio soap opera, is broadcast on station
WGN in Chicago.
The first Bugs Bunny cartoon is released.
Captains Courageous, starring Spencer Tracy and Freddie Bartholomew,
opens at U.S. movie theaters.
Harbor Lights is a popular song.
Joe Louis wins the World Heavyweight boxing title by knocking out
James J. Barrow in the eighth round.
Possession and sale of marijuana is outlawed in the U.S.
A hurricane hits New England, killing 680 and causing $400 billion
in property damages.
Chiang Kai-Shek blows up the Huanghe River dike to stop the invading
Japanese. The flooding that follows kills an estimated 900,000 Chinese.
Despite a conservation quota on the killing of whales instituted
by an international convention, Japanese, Norwegian and Russian
ships continue killing whales in unchecked amounts.
Vitamin A is reported to prevent night blindness.
A can of meat put up in 1824 is fed to rats with no ill effects.
Fiberglass is introduced on the public market.
The Yankees defeat the Cubs 4 games to 0 to win the World Series.
The samba and the conga are introduced at U.S. dance clubs.
Jeepers Creepers is published and becomes a popular song.
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first full-length animated
cartoon, premieres at U.S. movie theaters.
Orson Wells plays the role of Dracula on CBS radio.
The Adventures of Robin Hood, starring Errol Flynn, opens at American
Physicians earn less than $5,000 per year. Lawyers average less
than half that much.
Homage to Catalonia, by novelist George Orwell, is published.
The comic strip Nancy appears in newspapers.
Superman, by cartoonists Jerry Siegal and Joseph Shuster, is introduced
in comic books.
The ballpoint pen is patented.
The first demonstration of color television is given on a nine
by twelve foot screen.
Nazi Germany invades Poland one week after signing non-aggression
England and France declare war on Germany.
President Roosevelt gives radio speech promising parents of American
servicemen that no U.S. soldier will fight in the European War.
Black opera singer Marie Anderson tries to rent Constitution Hall
in Washington, D.C. for a concert and is refused because of her
race by the Daughters of the American Revolution, who own the hall.
Eleanor Roosevelt and other DAR members resign in protest.
Seventeen percent of the U.S. work force remains unemployed.
Only three percent of Americans earn enough money to pay income
U.S. Steel reports a net profit of $41 million. The average U.S.
steel worker earns less than $20 per week.
Thanksgiving is celebrated the fourth Thursday in November instead
of the last to provide a longer shopping season before Christmas.
An atom is split for the first time.
General Electric introduces fluorescent lighting.
Albert Einstein writes letter to President Roosevelt warning of
possible dangers of nuclear energy. "This new phenomenon,"
Einstein writes, "would lead also to the construction of bombs."
The first commercial transatlantic air service begins when a Boeing
aircraft flies from Washington, D.C. to Lisbon.
Edsel Ford introduces the Lincoln Mercury automobile.
Nylon is introduced commercially.
Hewlett-Packard is founded by engineers William Hewlett and David
NBC televises the New York World's Fair.
Comic book hero Batman appears in DC Comics.
Finnegan's Wake, by James Joyce, is published.
Gone With the Wind, a 3 hour and 42 minute movie, opens at U.S.
movie theaters to sell-out crowds.
The Wizard of Oz premieres at U.S. movie theaters.
Winston Churchill is named Prime Minister of Britain after Neville
Chamberland resigns. •German troops seize Denmark and Norway. •France,
Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands fall to German invasion.
The world's first electron microscope, an instrument that can magnify
up to 100,000 times, is demonstrated at RCA laboratory in New Jersey.
John Winston Lennon, founder and leader of the musical rock group
the Beatles, is born in Liverpool, England during German bombing
Eleanor Roosevelt publicly endorses birth control.
Seventy percent of U.S. blacks live in the south.
M & M Candies are created by Forrest Mars and Bruce Murrie.
"We shall fight in France," Prime Minister Winston Churchill
says in speech to English parliament. "We shall fight on the
seas and oceans. We shall fight on the beaches. We shall fight on
the landing grounds. We shall fight in the fields and in the streets.
We shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender."
German troops enter Paris. •Russia takes 16,000 square miles of
Finland with German concurrence.
An estimated 30,000 English and French troops are killed at Dunkirk.
The first precooked frozen food is introduced for sale on the commercial
The first U.S. food stamp program begins.
The average U.S. farm family has an annual income of less than
The Axis joins Germany, Italy, and Japan in military alliance.
Smoking is related to lung cancer in medical study.
The first peacetime military draft begins in U.S.
Italy declares war on England and France.
Frank Sinatra joins the Harry James Band as a crooner.
The U.S. population is 132 million.
War bonds are introduced.
Germany begins killing Jews in concentration camps with cyanine
President Roosevelt calls for a world with the four freedoms protected:
freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from want, and freedom
Hong Kong and Wake Island fall to the Japanese.
Japan invades the Phillipines.
Germany and Romania declare war on the U.S.
Japan declares war on the U.S. The Japanese bombs Pearl Harbor.
"I fear we have awakened a sleeping giant," said Admiral
Yamato, who planned the attack.
The U.S. declares war on Japan.
The U.S. destroyers Reuben James and Kearny are sunk by German
Germany invades Russia.
British air and naval units sink the German battleship Bismark
in the North Atlantic. Less than 100 of 1,300-man crew survive.
The world population is 2.3 billion. Nearly 25 percent inhabit
I Don't Want to Set the World on Fire is a popular song.
Stan Musial joins the St. Louis Cardinals.
General Foods introduce Cheerios on the public market.
Napalm and Dacron are invented.
The Wolf Man, starring Lon Chaney Jr., opens at U.S. movie theaters.
Parade magazine is founded.
Claiming their mission is to gain independence from Great Britian,
Jewish terriorists in Palestine assassinate officials and bomb oil
refineries and military installations.
Of the $55 billion U.S. budget, $52 billion is targeted for the
The bazooka, an antitank weapon, is tested for the first time.
U.S. troops surrender to Japan on Bataan in the Phillipines. Most
of the 36,000 men are killed on a death march to interment camps.
U.S. bombers attack Toyko. Three U.S. flyers died in crash landings.
Eleven flyers are captured. The Japanese execute three.
The U.S. Carrier Lexington is sunk in the battle of the Coral Sea.
More than 1,000 British bombers attack German industrial targets.
U.S. carrier planes stop the Japanese at the battle of Midway.
Six German saboteurs are captured after being landed by a U-boat
on a Florida beach.
U.S. supports China in war against Japan.
German tank commander Edwin Rommel and troops capture 25,000 British
soldiers in Lybia.
More than 35,000 Canadian soldiers are killed in raid on Dieppe
on the French coast.
The Russians lose 750,000 soldiers in battles against Germany.
Germany loses 400,000. Cannabilism among surviving soldiers is reported.
The WAVES (Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service) is established
An alied force of 400,000 commanded by General Dwight D. Eisenhower
lands at Casablanca, Algiers, and Oran.
Mahatma Gandhi demands independence for India from Britain. Gandhi
is arrested and later released. •German troops occupy France.
German engineer Wember von Braun launches the first surface-to-surface
guided missile as part of Nazi war effort.
The Germans execute every male in the Czech village of Lidice.
The female population is raped and abused.
The Germans round up thousands of Jews and transport them to Nazi
President Roosevelt orders the determent of more than 100,000 Japanese-Americans
living in the U.S.
Eisenhower is named Supreme Commander of the European Allied Forces.
Liquor is banned from U.S. military bases.
Food rationing in U.S. goes into effect.
U.S. Marines capture Guadalcanal.
U.S. begins bombing attacks on Germany.
Wages and prices in U.S. are frozen by executive order.
Shoe rationing in U.S. goes into effect.
German troops retreat from Eastern Front.
Jefferson Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C.
Allied forces bomb Rome.
Allied forces invade Italy.
Italian Prime Minister Mussolini resigns.
Italy declares war on Germany.
More than 30 are killed and 500 injured in Detroit race riot.
U.S. Supreme Court rules invalid West Virginia law requiring children
to salute American flag.
Jazz musician Fats Waller dies.
Rogers and Hammerstein's musical Oklahoma opens on Broadway.
Roosevelt, Churchhill, and Stalin meet to discuss strategy for
Allied invasion of Europe.
A Tree Grows in Brooklyn by novelist Betty Smith is published.
Rock and roll legends Janis Joplin, Jimi Hendrix, and Jim Morrison
are born. Each will die at age 27.
Keith Richards is born in England. Richards will write many hit
singles as lead guitarist of the Rolling Stones, a musical rock
U.S. Supreme Court rules the right to vote is not affected by color.
U.S. Marines capture Saipan.
U.S. begins bombing raids on Berlin.
Allies launch major offensive from Anzio beachhead.
U.S. Army marches into Rome.
Allied forces invade Normandy.
U.S. forces defeat Japan in Battle of the Phillipines Sea.
U.S. forces capture Guam.
Allied troops liberate Paris.
U.S. troops enter Germany.
Roosevelt is elected President for the fourth term. His new Vice-President
is Harry S. Truman.
Battle of the Bulge begins.
German forces begin surrendering to Allied forces.
U.S. forces invade Marshall Island.
Japanese Prime Minister Tojo resigns.
German generals attempt to assassinate Hitler.
G.I. Bill of Rights is signed into law.
Control of U.S. railroads is returned to owners.
Tennessee Williams' play The Glass Menagerie opens on Broadway.
Meat rationing ends in U.S.
A Bell for Adamo by novelist John Hersey is published.
U.S. dim-out to conserve fuel begins.
U.S. troops capture Manila.
U.S. Marines capture Iwo Jima.
U.S. forces capture Okinawa.
First atomic bomb is detonated in New Mexico.
U.S. bomber crashes into Empire State Building.
President Roosevelt dies of heart failure in Warm Springs, Georgia.
Harry S. Truman is sworn in as President.
Adolf Hitler commits suicide.
President Truman demands Japanese surrender, threatening attack
with new weapon if Japan doesn't comply.
Japanese refuse to surrender.
U.S. Air Force drops atomic bombs on Japanese cities Hiroshima
Korea is divided at 38th parallel.
General Douglas MacArthur is named Supreme Commander of Allied
Forces in Japan. •United Nations is established.
President Truman orders restoration of free market.
Mildred Pierce, starring Joan Crawford, opens at U.S. movie theaters.
Nuremburg war trials begin.
United Auto Workers go on strike.
Cass Timerlane by novelist Sinclair Lewis is published.
Carousel, a musical by Rogers and Hammerstein, opens on Broadway.
Italian citizens kill Mussolini and hang his body upside down in
Baby Boomer generation begins.
President Truman established the Central Intelligence Agency.
United Auto Workers end strike.
U.S. Supreme Court rules that buses must allow seating without
regard to race on interstate trips.
Writer Gertrude Stein dies in Paris.
Electronical numerical computers are introduced in the engineering
and business industries.
U.S. continues atomic bomb tests.
League of Nations meets for last time.
United Nations meets in New York City.
The Iceman Cometh, a six hour play by Eugene O'Neill, opens on
The Best Years of Our Lives opens at U.S. movie theaters.
U.S. and China sign a friendship pact.
All The King's Men by novelist Robert Penn Warren is published.
Republicans regain control of Congress.
Proclamation of formal cessation of World War II hostilities is
issued by President Truman.
Atomic Energy Commission is established.
Arthur Miller's play All My Sons opens on Broadway.
Henry Ford dies at age 83.
India gains independence from Great Britian. Jawahari Nehru becomes
Prime Minister of Hindu India.
Denmark King Christian X dies after a 35-year reign. His son, Frederick
IX, succeeds him.
The U.S. population is 146 million. The population of China is
Self-rising corn meal is introduced on public market.
Pakastan is partitioned from India as Muslim state. Millions die
in riots that follow.
Jackie Robinson, the first black U.S. major league baseball player,
signs with the Brooklyn Dodgers.
A black list of alleged Communist sympathizers names more than
300 Hollywood writers, actors, and directors.
B.F. Goodrich introduces the first tubeless tires. The tires seal
Air Force Captain Chuck Yeager breaks the sound barrier in a rocket
Sony Corporation begins in Japan.
The Dead Sea Scrolls are discovered by a boy exploring a cave in
Palestine. The documents contain Christian text, which were later
eliminated by the Romans from the Christian Bible.
Steve Canyon debuts as a newspaper cartoon.
The Wayward Bus by novelist John Steinbeck is published.
Edwin H. Land patents the Polaroid Land Camera, which produces
photographs in 60 seconds. Nightmare Alley, starring Tyrone Power
and June Allison, opens at U.S. theaters.
The first Tony Awards, honoring outstanding Broadway plays, are
Mahatma Gandhi is shot to death by Nathuram Godse, editor and publisher
of a Hindu newspaper. When hearing of Gandhi's death, Albert Einstein
says, "Generations to come will scarce believe that such a
one as this ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth."
Harry Truman is elected President, defeating Republican Thomas
The World Health Organization is established in Geneva.
British National Health Services law established taxpayer-financed
cradle-to-grave medical care. This free medical service will lower
Britian's infant mortality rates, maternal death rates, influenza
death rates, tuberculosis death rates, and pneumonia death rates
to levels far below U.S. rates.
Cortizone is synthesized at the Mayo Clinic.
One million U.S. homes have television sets.
Pogo, an Okefenokee Possum, debuts in a newspaper comic strip.
"We have met the enemy," Pogo says, "and he is us."
The Heart of the Matter by novelist Graham Greene is published.
Nikon, a 35-millimeter rangefinder camera, is introduced by Nippan
Kogaku, a Japanese lens maker.
Hopalong Cassidy, starring William Boyd, debuts as the first western
on U.S. television.
The Toast of the Town, with newspaper columnist Ed Sullivan as
master of ceremonies, debuts on U.S. television. The show introduces
Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis in its first program.
A 33-1/3 phonograph record is demonstrated by engineer Peter Goldmark.
Leo Fender mass produces an electric guitar he names Broadcaster.
The Broadcaster is renamed the Telecaster.
Tennessee Waltz by Redd Stewart and Pee Wee King is a popular song.
The Treasure of the Sierra Madre, starring Humphrey Bogart and
Walter Huston, opens at U.S. movie theaters.
The Olympics are held for the first time since 1936. The U.S. wins
the majority of the medals.
The Cleveland Indians defeat the Boston Braves 4 games to 2 to
win the World Series.
Scrabble is copyrighted by James Brunot, who invented the crossword
game in 1931.
Dial Soap, the first deodorant soap, is introduced on the public
Aided by Soviet Russia, Communist leaders gain control of China.
Nationalist forces move from the mainland to Taiwan. Mao Zedong
is named Chairman of the People's Republic of China.
France acknowledges Vietnamese independence, but retains the right
to maintain military bases in Vietnam.
Siam is renamed Thailand.
A U.N. report warns of a possible civil war in Korea.
The U.S. War Department is renamed the U.S. Defense Department.
The U.S.S.R. explodes the first Soviet atomic bomb. The bomb was
chiefly developed by German scientists who worked on the bomb during
the Nazi occupation of Germany.
A South African apartheid program bans marriages between whites
The salary of President Truman is raised to $100,000 with a tax-free
allowance of $50,000 for expenses.
Unemployment in the U.S. reaches 6 percent.
A new Cadillac is $5,000. A gallon of gas costs 25 cents. A bottle
of Coke is 5 cents. Milk is 21 cents a quart. A loaf of bread is
15 cents. Eggs are 80 cents a dozen. A 10-inch TV sells for $300.
Pork is 60 cents a pound. The average U.S. worker earns less than
$2,500 per year.
U.S. auto production exceeds five million for the first time since
The German Volkswagen begins commercial production. Two Beetles
are sold in the U.S.
Saab is founded in Sweden.
Powdered root from the tropical plant Wolf Bane is discovered to
lower blood pressure.
Radio Free Europe broadcasts its first transmission to listeners
behind the Iron Curtain.
Ninteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell is published. "Big Brother
is watching you," warns an Orwell character.
Death of a Salesman by playwright Arthur Miller opens in New York
Amos 'n Andy, starring black actors, becomes a weekly TV series.
White Heat, starring James Cagney and Virginia Mayo, opens at U.S.
movie theaters. "I made it to the top of the world, Ma,"
says Cagney's character.
Rudolph the Red-Nose Reindeer becomes a popular Christmas song.
The U.S. signs a pact with France to assist Vietnam. The U.S. supplies
arms to the Vietnamese and sends military advisors to provide instructions
on how to use the weapons.
Kellogg's introduces Sugar Pops.
The average U.S. farmer produces enough food for 16 people.
Smokey the Bear becomes a national symbol.
The Korean War begins.
The first elevators with self-opening doors are installed in office
buildings, forcing operators to seek other employment.
Sweden's King Gustav V dies at age 92 after reigning 43 years.
Armed robbers steal $1.5 million from the Brink's Express co. The
FBI spends $130 million trying to capture the robbers. Ten men are
arrested. Two die before trial. Eight are sentenced. The FBI recovers
$50,000 of the stolen loot.
The Yankees defeat the Phillies 4 games to 0 to win the World Series.
Saxophonist Charlie Parker, a leading innovator of bebop, opens
at the Birdland Theater on Broadway. Parker will become known as
If I Knew You Were Comin' I'd Ave Baked a Cake is a popular song.
A newspaper columnist writes an unflattering review of a song recital
by Margaret Truman. In a letter to the columnist, Margaret's father
President Harry Truman writes, "Some day I hope to meet you.
When that happens, you'll need a new nose, a lot of beef steak for
black eyes, and perhaps a supporter below."
Walt Disney's Cinderella opens at U.S. theaters.
What's My Line debuts on U.S. television.
Harvey, a movie about an invisible 6'3" rabbit starring Jimmy
Stewart, opens at U.S. theaters.
Nothing by novelist Henry Green is published.
Peanuts by Charles Shultz begins appearing in U.S. newspapers.
The first Japanese portable tape recorder, weighing 40 pounds,
is introduced on the Japanese market.
The first Xerox copying machine is produced.
Orlon is introduced for sale on the public market.
President Truman escapes an assassination attempt by two Puerto
Ricans. One guard and one Puerto Rican are fatally wounded.
Cold, Cold Heart by Hank Williams tops the country music charts.
The African Queen, starring Katherine Hepburn and Humphrey Bogart,
opens at movie theaters. The movie will win an Oscar for best motion
I Love Lucy debuts on television.
From Here To Eternity, a novel by James Jones, is published.
Color television programs are broadcast. Black and white TV sets
are unable to pick up the signals.
Dennis the Menace appears in U.S. newspapers.
The Univac computer is introduced for sale to engineers and scientists.
Power steering is installed in Chrysler Imperials.
The first nuclear reactor is built by U.S. scientists.
The U.S. budget includes $72 billion for the Korean conflict.
The Twenty-Second Amendment, limiting presidential terms to two,
French soldiers battle Communist troops in Hanoi.
North Korean troops are defeated at the battle of Heartbreak Ridge.
President Truman relieves General MacArthur of his command after
MacArthur publicly calls for air strikes on Chinese cities.
Minute Rice is introduced by General Mills.
Hundreds in France experience hallucinogenic effects after eating
bread containing a compound used in the production of LSD.
The Catcher in the Rye by novelist J.D. Salinger is published.
Kukla, Fran & Ollie debuts on television.
The King and I, a musical starring Yul Byrnner and Gertrude Lawrence,
opens on Broadway.
Jersey Joe Walcott knocks out Ezzard Charles to win the World Heavyweight
Willie Mays joins the New York Giants. Mickey Mantle joins the
New York Yankees.
Dwight D. Eisenhower is elected President of the United States in
a landslide victory.
The Communist witch-hunt, headed by Senator Joseph P. McCarthy,
U.S. Air Force bombs North Korea.
Puerto Rico becomes a U.S. commonwealth.
Elizabeth II becomes Queen of England after the death of her father,
U.S. population is 153 million. The population of China is 583
A beef shortage in England leads to the consumption of more than
50,000 horses for food. •Kansas and Missouri floods kill 41.
The "alligator" symbol appears on sport-shirts.
Motorbuses replace streetcars in London.
Polio cripples more than 50,000 Americans.
Jonas Salk tests a vaccine against polio.
The first transistor hearing aids are introduced.
Sony introduces the first pocket-sized transistor radios.
The Today Show, hosted by Dave Garroway, premiers on televison.
Garroway is aided by chimpanzee J. Fred Muggs.
More than 16 million U.S. homes have TV sets.
Mad magazine begins publication. The name of the nitwit boy on
the front is changed from Melvin Cowznofski to Alfred E. Newman.
East of Eden, by novelist John Steinbeck, is published.
Charlotte's Web, by E.B. White, is published.
The Quiet Man, starring John Wayne and Maureen O'Hara, opens at
American Bandstand, hosted by Dick Clark, premiers on television.
Your Cheatin' Heart, by Hank Williams, tops the country music charts.
U.S. competitors win the most medals at the Olympics in Helsinki.
Rocky Marciano wins the World Heavyweight boxing title by knocking
out Jersey Joe Walcott.
Jambalaya by Hank Williams tops the country music charts.
Charlie Chaplin is blacklisted as an alleged Communist sympathizer
and forbidden from entering the United States.
Country music legend Hank Williams, 29, dies in the back seat of
a Cadillac on his way to a concert.
Freon gas is used for the first time to propel substances from
Canada becomes a leading supplier of uranium ore.
The New York Curb Exchange is renamed the American Stock Exchange.
A French army of more than 250,000 occupies South Vietnam in preparation
for battle against North Vietnamese troops.
The U.S.S.R. explodes its first known atomic weapons.
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, convicted of relaying U.S. atomic secrets
to Soviet agents, are executed.
North Korean and Chinese casualties in the Korean conflict exceed
1.5 million. More than 2 million Korean civilians have been killed.
More than 25,000 U.S. soldiers have been killed.
Swedish Dag Hammarskold is elected Secretary-General of the United
Soviet leader Josef Stalin dies. Nikita Khruschev becomes first
secretary of the Communist party.
Unemployment in the U.S. drops to its lowest point since 1945.
The first IBM computer is sold on the public market.
An investigation into the Piltdown Man Forgery reveals Charles
Darwin manufactured the skull fragments he supposedly found in 1912.
Discovery of the fraud destroys Darwin's missing-link theory.
Tobacco induces cancer in mice.
TV Guide begins publication.
Playboy begins publication.
James Bond, 007, is introduced in Casino Royale, by writer Ian
In a 9 to 0 vote, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that racial segregation
in public schools is unconstitutional.
The Nautilus, the first nuclear-powered submarine, is launched
by the U.S.
Gasoline prices average 30 cents per gallon in the U.S.
Hudson Motor Car Company and Nash-Kelvinator merge to form the
American Motor Corporation.
The first fuel-injection system for automobiles is introduced in
the Mercedes 300SL.
Texas Instruments introduces the silicon transistor, lowering the
price of transistors from $17 to $2.25.
The first mass polio immunization shots, developed by Jonas Salk,
The first successful kidney transplant is performed.
Sung Myung Moon founds the Unification Church.
Ron Hubbard founds the Church of Scientology.
The first U.S. color television sets are introduced on the public
A 19-inch black and white TV set costs $189.
Veteran's Day becomes a national holiday.
Sports Illustrated begins publication.
Lord of the Flies, a novel by William Golding, is published.
Eastman Kodak introduces Tri-X film, a high speed black and white
film that allows photography in dim light.
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, starring Kirk Douglas and James Mason,
opens at movie theaters.
The musical Peter Pan, starring Mary Martin, premiers on Broadway.
Shake, Rattle and Roll is a popular song.
Elvis Presley, 19, records That's All Right Mama and Blue Moon
of Kentucky at Sun Records in Memphis. Sam Phillips, owner of Sun
Records, will sell Presley's recording contract to RCA for $35,000.
The Stratocaster, an electric guitar designed by Leo Fender, is
introduced on the public market.
Track star Roger Bannister breaks the 4-minute mile.
The St. Louis Browns become the Baltimore Orioles. Hank Aaron signs
with the Milwaukee Braves.
The New York Giants win the World Series.
The U.S. birth rate is 4 million per year. •French soldiers move
to the north lines of Vietnam to fight North Vietnamese and South
Communist Chinese troops.
Minimum wage in the U.S. rises from 75 cents to $1 per hour.
H&R Block, an income tax accounting firm, is founded.
More than 7 million cars are sold in the U.S.
Ford introduces the Thunderbird, a two-seat sports car.
The Chevrolet V-8 engine is introduced.
The Salk vaccine against polio is judged highly effective.
The National Review, edited by William F. Buckley Jr., begins publication.
The Village Voice begins publication in New York City.
The Reader's Digest refuses cigarette advertising.
Ann Landers and Dear Abby, advice columns by twin sisters Esther
Friedman Lederer and Abigail Van Buren Lederer, is syndicated to
The Guiness Book of World Records begins publication.
The Brooklyn Dodgers defeat the New York Yankees, 4 games to 3,
to win their first World Series.
The Quiet American, by novelist Graham Greene, is published.
Bus Stop, by playwright William Inge, opens on Broadway.
No Time for Sergeants, starring Andy Griffith with Don Knotts,
opens on Broadway.
Rebel Without a Cause, starring James Dean, Natalie Wood, and Sal
Mineo, premiers at movie theaters.
Disneyland opens in California.
Captain Kangeroo and The Mickey Mouse Club debut on television.
The musical Oklahoma, starring Shirley Jones and Gordon MacRae,
opens at movie theaters.
Maybellene, by rock and roll legend Chuck Berry, scores an immediate
John Lennon meets Paul McCartney and forms the Quarrymen, a rock
and roll band.
A Long Day's Jouney Into Night, a play about alcoholism and drug
addiction written by Eugene O'Neill, opens on Broadway.
Daytime soap operas As The World Turns and The Edge of Night premier
The Searchers, starring John Wayne and Jeffery Hunter, debuts at
Elvis Presley is paid $60,000 for 3 appearances on the Ed Sullivan
The Last Hurrah, by novelist Edwin O'Connor, is published.
Profiles in Courage, by Senator John F. Kennedy, is published.
The first videotape recorder is demonstrated.
Canada begins efforts to help India develop nuclear energy.
The slaughter of Chinese who resist Communism continues. By 1960,
an estimated 26 million Chinese will be killed, making it the largest
massacre in world history.
"We will bury you," Nikita Khrushchev tells western ambassadors
at a meeting in Moscow.
President Eisenhower wins re-election by a 15 percent margin.
Pakistan becomes an Islamic republic.
Floyd Patterson knocks out Archie Moore to become World Heavyweight
Crest, a fluoride toothpaste, is introduced on the public market.
Sudan is declared an independent republic.
U.S. Supreme Court ruling upholds a law that compels witnesses
to testify against themselves in cases involving national security.
The Italian passenger liner S.S. Andrea Doria collides with Swedish
liner S.S. Stockholm off the coast of Massachusetts, resulting in
the loss of 52 lives.
Lust for Life, starring Kirk Douglas as Vincent van Gogh and Anthony
Quinn as Gaugin, opens at movie theaters. Quinn wins an Oscar for
best supporting actor.
Love Me Tender, Hound Dog, and Heartbreak Hotel, by Elvis Presley,
top the musical charts.
Mao Zedong orders a half-billion Chinese put into labor camps for
The Soviet Union launches Sputnick I, the first man-made satellite.
More than 20 percent of Americans live below the poverty line.
German engineer Fritz Wankel produces the first rotary engine.
Marine Corps pilot Major John Glenn flies across the United States
in 3 hours and 20 minutes, setting a new speed record.
The Edsel is introduced by Ford Motor Company. Years ahead of its
time in construction and design, the Edsel is a monumental failure.
The first transistorized computer is produced.
The first battery-powered wrist watch is produced.
Synthetic DNA is created.
On the Road, by novelist Jack Kerouac, is published. Kerouac is
credited with inventing the word beatnick.
The Cat in the Hat and How the Grinch Stole Christmas, by Dr. Suess,
are published. •Orpheus Descending, by playwright Tennessee Williams,
opens on Broadway.
The Bridge on the River Kwai, starring Alec Guinness and William
Holden, opens at movie theaters.
The musical West Side Story opens on Broadway.
Berry Gordy Jr. founds Motown Corp., a musical recording company.
The Milwaukee Braves defeat the Yankees 4 games to 3 to win the
A Face in the Crowd, starring Andy Griffith, opens at movie theaters.
The Frisbee is introduced on the public market.
Killer bees imported into Brazil from Africa escape and start heading
north at 200 miles per hour. Hundreds of people along their path
are attacked and killed.
Jailhouse Rock hits the top of musical charts.
The Man With a Thousand Faces, starring Jimmy Cagney as Lon Chaney,
opens at movie theaters.
Doctor Zhivago by novelist Boris Pasternak, is published.
The average U.S. family income is $5,000.
Robert Whelch founds the John Birth Society. Whelch names the group
in honor of a U.S. Army officer killed by the Communists in China
at the end of World War II.
Blue jeans are $3.50 a pair. The average price of gas in the U.S.
is 30 cents per gallon. Newspapers sell for 5 cents. Leather shoes
are $12 a pair. A family size Ford sells for $1,800. A week in the
hospital costs $200. Steak is $1.02 per pound. Milk is 90 cents
per gallon. Comic books are 10 cents each. A six-pack of Coca-Cola
costs 30 cents. Deposits on bottles are 2 cents each. A candy bar
costs 5 cents.
John Lennon changes the name of his rock and roll group, the Quarrymen,
to Johnny and the Moondogs. The group includes Paul McCartney, George
Harrison, and Stu Sutcliffe.
The first public U.S. atomic power station is completed.
The Boeing 707 is used for the first time in domestic flight.
The M-14, a full automatic version of the M-1, becomes standard
The first U.S. satellite is launched.
The cost of the standard U.S. postage stamp increases from 3 cents
to 4 cents.
More than 40 million American homes have television sets.
United Press International is founded.
The Darma Bums, by Jack Kerouac, is published.
Krapp's Last Tape, by Samuel Beckett, opens at London's Royal Theatre.
Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, starring Elizabeth Taylor and Paul Newman,
debuts at movie theaters.
Buddy Holly and the Crickets tour the world playing rock and roll
hits, including Peggy Sue and That'll Be The Day.
The first Pizza Hut opens.
Cocoa Puffs and Cocoa Krispies are introduced on the public market.
More than 100 million hula hoops are sold in the U.S.
The Brooklyn Dodgers become the Los Angeles Dodgers.
Splish Splash, by Bobby Darin, is a popular song.
Rebel forces, led by Ernesto "Che" Guevara and Fidel Castro,
overthrow the Cuban government.
Bone fragments and stone tools found in Africa indicate that a
man-ape lived approximately 2 million years ago.
Sony introduces the first transistorized TV sets.
A U.S. postal ban is lifted on Lady Chatterley's Lover, a 1928
novel by D.H. Lawrence.
The Elements of Style, by E.B. White, is published.
Following Buddy Holly's lead, John Lennon changes the name of his
band, Johnny and the Moon Dogs, to the Silver Beatles, then to the
Beatles. The five-man rock and roll band consists of Lennon, Paul
McCartney, George Harrison, Stu Sutcliffe, and Pete Best.
Nippon Kogasku introduces the Nikon F 35-mm, a single-lens reflex
Raisin in the Sun, starring Sidney Poitier and Ruby Dee, opens
Anatomy of a Murder, starring Jimmy Stewart and Lee Remick, premiers
at movie theaters.
Rock and roll legend Buddy Holly dies at age 22 in a plane crash.
Swedish boxer Ingemar Johansson knocks out Floyd Patterson to become
World Heavyweight Champion.
The Los Angeles Dodgers defeat the Chicago White Sox 4 games to
2 to win the World Series.
The Barbie doll is introduced on the public market.
Frank Lloyd Wright dies at 89.
The Naked Lunch, by novelist William Burroughs, is published.
The microchip is invented.
The Rambler and the Ford Falcon are introduced on the public market
to compete with the Volkswagon.
Volkswagon sales in the U.S. exceed 100,000.
Vice-President Nixon debates Premier Khrushchev in Moscow.
Tibet's Dali Lama escapes to India.
Alaska and Hawaii become the 49th and 50th states.
Switzerland rejects an amendment that would allow women to vote
in national elections and to run for office.
Blacks begin sit-ins in Greenboro, North Carolina, protesting segregation
at eating establishments.
More than 2,000 electric computers are sold in the U.S.
Librium, an anti-anxiety drug, is approved for sale in the U.S.
U.S. launches the first communications satellite.
John Fitzgerald Kennedy defeats Vice-President Richard Nixon by
a narrow margin in the presidential race.
Typesetting by computer is introduced in France.
Pentel, the first felt-tip pen, is introduced on the public market.
The Violent Bear It Away, by novelist Flannery O'Connor, is published.
Period of Adjustment, by Tennessee Williams, opens on Broadway.
The Apartment, starring Shirley Maclaine and Jack Lemmon, premiers
at movie theaters.
The musical Oliver debuts at London's New Theatre.
The Twist is recorded by Chubby Checker.
The Pittsburg Pirates defeat the Yankees 4 games to 3 to win the
A title wave created by an earthquake in South America kills more
than 1,000 in Hawaii and Japan.
Farmers comprise 10 percent of the U.S. work force.
Aluminum cans are used commercially for the first time.
The first Domino's Pizza opens.
The first oral contraceptive is introduced.
The population of New York City is 8 million. Tokyo's population
is 10 million.
The world population is 3 billion. The population of China accounts
for more than 25 percent of the 3 billion.
Itsy Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polka Dot Bikini is a popular song.
After shooting down a U-2 spy plane, Russians capture American
pilot Francis Gary Powers.
The Datsun is introduced for sale in the United States.
Atomic bomb drills begin in U.S. schools. Children are instructed
to get on their knees and hold a book above their head to protect
them from nuclear fallout.
Robert F. Kennedy is named Attorney General of the United States.
President John F. Kennedy established the Peace Corps.
Cuban exiles aided by U.S. trained agents invade Cuba at the Bay
of Pigs. Cuban troops stop the invasion. The promise of U.S. fighter
planes to assist in the invasion never occurs.
Astronaut Alan Shepard is the first American in space.
An armed hijacker diverts an Eastern passenger jet to Cuba.
The Tropic of Cancer, by novelist Henry Miller, is released in
the U.S. after being banned for more than 20 years.
President Kennedy advises U.S. families to build fallout shelters.
The National Council of Churches endorse birth control.
The Misfits, starring Clark Gable and Marilyn Monroe, premiers
at movie theaters.
In a televised speech, President Kennedy commits the U.S. to landing
man on the moon by the end of the decade.
U.S. Supreme Court rules that illegally obtained evidence cannot
be used in trials.
President Kennedy meets with Soviet Premier Nikita Krushchev in
The American Medical Association publishes a report linking smoking
with heart disease.
U.S. begins underground nuclear testing.
United Nations Secretary General Dag Hammerskjold is killed in
a plane crash.
The Twenty-Third Amendment, providing congressional representation
of Washington, D.C., is ratified.
Soviet astronaut Yuri Gagarin makes the first manned space flight
that circles the earth.
The U.S. has 12 million privately owned trucks.
Tylenol, the first acetaminophen tablets, is introduced on the
FCC Chairman Newton Minnow calls television programming "a
Astronaut John Glen becomes the first American to orbit Earth.
Novelist William Faulkner dies.
Communication satellite Telstar is launched into space.
U.S. armed forces are sent to Laos to battle Communist troops.
Film star Marilyn Monroe dies.
The Supreme Court rules prayer in public schools in unconstitutional.
Stu Sutcliffe of the Beatles dies of brain hemorrhage. Pete Best
is replaced with drummer Richard Starkey (Ringo Starr). The rock
and roll group, nicknamed the Fab Four, consists of John Lennon,
Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr.
Poet E.E. Cummings dies.
Richard Nixon loses election for governor of California. "You won't
have Nixon to kick around anymore,” Nixon says in a speech following
Catch-22, by novelist Joseph Heller, is published.
President Kennedy signs bill to protect public from harmful drugs.
President Kennedy demands the removal of Soviet missile bases in
Cuba and orders naval blockade of Cuba. Following a three-day stand
off, Premier Krushchev agrees to remove the missile bases.
Ship of Fools, by novelist Katherine Ann Porter, is published.
Upon payment of $62 million worth of goods by the U.S., Cuba releases
1,113 prisoners captured during the Bay of Pigs invasion.
Whatever Happened to Baby Jane, starring Bette Davis and Joan Crawford,
debuts at movie theaters.
President Kennedy signs bill prohibiting racial discrimination
in federally funded housing.
Novelist John Steinbeck's Travels With Charley, an account of his
trip throughout the United States with his dog Charley, is published.
Steinbeck wins the Nobel Prize for literature.
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf, by playwright Edward Albee, opens
The first Wal-Mart opens.
The first K-Mart opens.
The lear jet is introduced by engineer William P. Lear.
The first successful measles vaccine is produced.
Nine out of ten American families own a television set. One out
of ten owns at least two.
The Beatles score their first major hit with I Want to Hold Your
The Los Angeles Dodgers defeat the Yankees 4 games to 0 to win
the World Series.
Farmers account for 7 percent of U.S. population.
Weight Watchers is founded.
Tab is introduced by Coca Cola.
Blue Bayou, by Roy Orbison, is a popular song.
The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance, starring John Wayne, Jimmy Stewart,
and Lee Marvin, opens at movie theaters.
Eastman Kodak introduces Instamatic cameras.
The Bell Jar, by poet Silvia Plath, is published following her
Touch-tone telephones are introduced on the public market.
The U.S. Supreme Court rules that reading verses from the Bible
in public schools is unconstitutional.
Valium, 10 times more potent than librium, is introduced for sale
in the U.S.
U.S. Supreme Court rules that defendants in criminal cases who
cannot afford an attorney be appointed one.
More than 200,000 demonstrators, supporting civil rights, march
outside the White House.
U.S. unemployment is 6 percent.
President Kennedy threatens to break the CIA into a million pieces.
Gordon Cooper orbits the earth 22 times.
President Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, Texas. The bullets
that kill him are allegedly fired by Lee Harvey Oswald from a mail-order
Two days after Kennedy's death, Oswald is shot to death by Jack
Ruby while being led down a corridor in the Dallas jail. Details
of an interview conducted by government agents shortly before Oswald's
death are not released to the media.
The Beach Boys record Surfin' USA.
Poet Robert Frost dies.
A telephone "hotline" linking Washington D.C. to Moscow
goes into operation.
A collection of pop art by Andy Warhol is exhibited at the Guggenhein
Museum in New York City.
North Vietnamese P.T. boats attack two U.S. destroyers patrolling
off the coast of Vietnam. U.S. forces sink the P.T. boats and bomb
North Vietnam military bases.
Herbert Hoover, 31st President of the United States, dies.
Lyndon Baines Johnson is elected President of the United States
in a landslide victory over Republican Barry Goldwater.
The Beatles stage their first American tour, which includes an
appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show. More than 60,000 people, waiting
in line outside CBS studios for tickets, are turned away after seating
for the studio audience is filled. Less than 4,000 were turned away
when Elvis made his first appearance on the show.
General Douglas MacArthur dies.
Olympic champion Cassius Clay defeats Sonny Liston to become World
Heavyweight Boxing Champion.
Herzog, a novel by Saul Bellows, is published.
Dr. Strangelove, directed by Stanley Kubrick and starring Peter
Sellers, debuts at movie theaters.
Gulf of Tonklin Resolution gives the President power to take measures
to defend U.S. forces and to prevent further aggression in Vietnam.
The Rolling Stones stage their first U.S. tour, frequently playing
concerts in stadiums and auditoriums where more than half the tickets
An earthquake in Alaska kills more than 100 and causes an estimated
half-billion dollars in damages.
President Johnson begins "War on Poverty," requesting
almost one billion dollars for the project.
Where Did Our Love Go?, by the Supremes, is a popular song.
Playwright Arthur Miller writes After the Fall, based on his marriage
to Marilyn Monroe.
Race riots erupt in Harlem and Philadelphia.
The Surgeon General announces proof that cigarettes cause lung
Sonar detects a large object in Scotland's Loch Ness.
President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act.
Carol Channing stars in Hello, Dolly!
Soviets shoot down an USAF training jet over East Germany.
Poet T.S. Elliott dies.
Viet Cong troops attack U.S. military base in Plieku, killing 8
and wounding 126.
President Johnson orders bombing of North Vietnamese bases.
Government officials call for a network of bomb shelters in the
Heart Full of Soul, by the British rock group Yard Birds, is a
Total U.S. fighting force in Vietnam is 65,000 men. Johnson announces
plan to increase force to 125,000 men.
As the first of its kind in the U.S., a television broadcasting
system is installed during the construction of a high school in
Vero Beach, Florida. The system is designed to teach students how
to create visual media presentations.
U.S. Marines land in South Vietnam to protect Air Force base at
U.S. Marines are sent to Dominican Republic to protect U.S. citizens
UN Ambassador Adlai Stevenson dies.
Race riot in Watts, a black section of Los Angeles, leaves 37 dead.
Nationwide antiwar rallies are held.
U.S. Medicare bill providing limited medical care for the disabled
and the elderly passes.
Department of Housing and Urban Development is established.
Anti-pollution bill allowing the setting of emission standards
on pollutants in new diesel and gasoline automobiles is instituted
into U.S. law.
President Johnson requests $1.7 billion for war effort in Vietnam.
Tornadoes in midwest kill 271 and injure 5,000.
Two-day major power blackout occurs in the northeast.
Immigration act in U.S. abolishes quota system based on national
Members of the KKK allegedly kill civil rights workers in Alabama.
U.S. Commissioner of Education announces that all public school
districts are to desegregate by September 1967.
Gemini 7 rendezvous in space with Gemini 6.
Literacy, knowledge, and character tests for voter registration
Cassius Clay knocks out Sonny Liston in less than two minutes of
the first round to retain the World Heavyweight Boxing Championship.
President Johnson pledges to maintain commitment to South Vietnam.
U.S. troops in Vietnam increase to 215,000.
Walt Disney dies.
Strike grounds all major airline planes for six weeks.
More than 15,000 anti-war protestors demonstrate in Washington,
Truth-In-Packaging bill, requiring accurate labeling of supermarket
The Beatles release their Rubber Soul album.
Republicans gain 47 seats in the House.
Truman Capote's nonfiction novel In Cold Blood is published.
Anti-war demonstrators hold rallies in major cities throughout
California Dreaming, by the Mamas and the Papas, is a popular song.
Andy Warhol says, "If you want to know about Andy Warhol,
just look at the surface of my paintings. There's nothing behind
Gabriel Garcia Marquez writes One Hundred Years of Solitude.
The $30 million Houston Astrodome opens.
Musician Jimi Hendrix exhibits his electric guitar skills during
stage appearances in England.
Alice's Restaurant, by folk singer Arlo Guthrie, is a popular song.
Arlo's father, Woody, dies a year later at age 55.
The musical It's a Bird! It's a Plane! It's Superman! opens on
The soap opera Dark Shadows premiers on ABC. The cult hit will
continue until April 1971.
Comedian Lenny Bruce dies of a heroin overdose.
The U.S. Supreme Court defines obscene material as "any matter
to which the average person applying contemporary standards, the
standard theme taken as a whole appeals to a prurient interest."
Quotations of Chairman Mao is published. Responding to a quotation
in the book: "The more books you read, the more stupid you
become," China's universities close down.
The U.S. infant mortality rate is 24 per thousand. The British
rate is 20. The Swedish rate is 15.
Senator Robert F. Kennedy proposes that bombing of North Vietnam
stop so troop withdrawal can be negotiated.
More than 100,000 anti-war demonstrators hold rallies in New York
City and San Francisco.
The Panther and the Lash, by black poet Langston Hughes, is published.
The Graduate, starring Dustin Hoffman, opens at movie theaters.
The Beatles release their album Sergeant Pepper's Lonely Hearts
During the Six-Day-Arab-War, the Israelis take Arab Jerusalem and
incorporate it with the rest of the city. The Israelis reject a
UN request to return control of Arab Jerusalem to the Arabs and
retains the Golan Heights and the West Bank of the Jordan. Together
with Arab Jerusalem, the three areas contain half the Arab population
of Jordan and half the economic resources.
Revolutionary Che Guevara is killed by Bolivian troops. Accusations
of CIA involvement in Guevara's death are alleged but never proven.
Guevara's hands are removed to verify his identity through fingerprint
New York City police arrest 260 anti-war demonstrators, including
Dr. Benjamin Spock.
Communist China explodes its first hydrogen bomb.
Rosemary's Baby, by novelist Ira Levin, is published.
In the Heat of the Night, starring Sidney Poitier and Rod Steiger,
opens at movie theaters.
Claiming conscientious objector status, World Heavyweight Boxing
Champion Mohammad Ali refuses induction into the U.S. Army and is
Race riots throughout U.S. kill 80 people and injure more than
A Black Power conference adopts an anti-white, anti-Christian resolution.
Black militant leader Stokely Carmichael calls for blacks to arm
Martin Luther King Jr. calls for a campaign of disobedience to
force government leaders to meet black demands.
Thurgood Marshall is sworn in as the first black U.S. Supreme Court
The musical Hair opens off-Broadway.
Light My Fire, by the Doors, is a popular song.
Mickey Mantle hits his 500th home run.
More than 100,000 anti-war demonstrators march on the Pentagon.
Police arrest 650.
A government mandate is issued stating that college students involved
in anti-war demonstrations will lose their draft deferments.
Sweden changes from driving on the left side of the road to the
A new Chevrolet sells for $2,300.
Rolling Stone magazine begins publication.
Robert F. Kennedy is shot to death by Sirhan Sirhan after winning
the California Democratic Primary for President.
More than 700 oil spills occur.
U.S. soldiers are told by superiors to not report dead Communist
Chinese soldiers among the Viet Cong killed in battle.
Martin Luther King Jr. is shot to death by alleged assassin James
Earl Ray. A black prosecutor is removed from the case after reporting
the discover of evidence that indicates Ray did not act alone in
the assassination. Until his death 30 years later, Ray will claim
others were involved in the murder of King.
President Johnson announces that he will not seek re-election as
More than 10,000 anti-war demonstrators march outside the Democratic
Convention in Chicago. More than 25,000 county, state, and federal
police officers tear-gas and beat the protestors with night sticks.
Responding to accusations by the news media of police brutality,
Chicago Mayor Richard Dailey says, "The policeman isn't there to
create disorder. The policeman is there to preserve disorder.”
Democrats in Chicago nominate Vice-President Hubert Humphrey to
run for President.
The first album by British rock group Led Zeppelin is produced.
Jumpin' Jack Flash, by the Rolling Stones, is a popular song.
The Detroit Tigers defeat the St. Louis Cardinals 4 games to 3
to win the World Series.
Republican Richard Nixon wins the Presidential election by a margin
of less than one-half percent. •Race riots break out in Chicago.
Mayor Richard Dailey orders police to shoot to kill.
More than 500,000 U.S. soldiers are in Vietnam.
Race riots erupt in Washington D.C., Boston, Baltimore, Kansas
City, Newark, and Detroit. More than 40 deaths occur. More than
20,000 are arrested.
The first automatic cash dispenser is installed.
More than 500,000 Volkswagens are sold in the U.S.
Microchip inventors Richard Noyce and Gordon Moore found Intel
and begin designing the first microprocessor.
Television's 60 Minutes debuts on CBS.
Novelist Thomas Wolfe's Electric Kool Aid Acid Test is published.
The Lion in Winter, starring Katherine Hepburn and Peter O'Toole,
opens at movie theaters.
The animated musical Yellow Submarine opens at movie theaters.
U.S. astronaut Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to walk on the
Ford introduces the Maverick to compete with foreign compact cars.
President Nixon coins the term silent majority. When asked by the
media where this silent majority is, Nixon declines to comment.
The comic strip Doonesbury appears in U.S. newspapers.
In a decision declaring a state anti-pornography law unconstitutional,
the U.S. Supreme Court states, "A state has no business telling
a man, sitting along in his house, which books he may read or what
films he may watch."
Midnight Cowboy, starring Dustin Hoffman and Jon Voight, opens
at U.S. theaters in large cities. Many small-town theater owners
refuse to show the film, claiming it is too sexually explicit. Midnight
Cowboy will become the first x-rated movie to win an Oscar for best
picture. •Penthouse begins publication.
The Godfather, by novelist Mario Puzo, is published.
Butterflies Are Free opens on Broadway.
Easy Rider, starring Dennis Hopper and Peter Fonda, premiers at
Monty Python's Flying Circus debuts on British television.
Sesame Street debuts on U.S. public television.
An estimated 500,000 youths attend the Woodstock Music Festival
in Bethel, New York. Jimi Hendrix, Arlo Guthrie, Crosby, Stills,
Nash and Young, Country Joe and the Fish, and other rock stars perform
on stage. The gathering is described as peace-loving and orderly.
Members of the Hell's Angels beat an onlooker to death at a free
Rolling Stones concert in San Francisco.
Come Saturday Morning, from the film The Sterile Cuckoo starring
Liza Minneli, is a popular song.
Led by quarterback Joe Namath, the New York Jets defeat the Baltimore
Colts to win the Superbowl.
The New York Mets defeat the Baltimore Orioles 4 games to 1 to
win the World Series.
Congress approves bills designed to end busing to achieve racial
An explosion aboard Apollo 13 forces astronauts to move into a
small lunar module designed for two men. The four astronauts return
to Earth aboard the module safely.
The U.S. unemployment rate is 5 percent.
The poverty line for U.S. families is $3,900 per year.
U.S. scientists discover an enzyme that can break up the structure
of a tumor.
A survey reports that less than 30 Americans in the U.S. are studying
the Vietnamese language. A U.S. scholar says, "So what?"
Deliverance, by novelist James Dickey, is published.
The play The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds
The Mary Tyler Moore Show debuts on NBC television.
Five Easy Pieces, starring Jack Nicholson, opens at movie theaters.
Deja Vu, by Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young, is a popular song.
Rock legends Janis Joplin and Jimi Hendrix die of drug overdoses.
Among 126 starters, Gary Muhrcke wins the first New York Marathon.
Richard Nixon signs into law the Racketeer Influence and Corrupt
Organizations Act. The RICO Act will be used to prosecute mafia
leaders and Wall Street traders using privileged information.
An earthquake in Peru kills more than 75,000 and injures an equivalent
Hurricane destroys downtown Corpus Christi, Texas. A cyclone in
Pakistan kills an esti•mated 350,000.
Congress passes a law requiring safety tops to prevent children
from opening containers of potentially dangerous products.
The U.S. population is 228 million. The world population is 3.6
billion. The population of Communist China is 760 million.
Microchips are made commercially available.
Soft contact lenses are introduced on the public market for sale.
The lenses cost $300.
A federal judge stops the Washington Post from publishing the Pentagon
Papers, a classified report giving details of U.S. involvement in
Vietnam. Given to the media by former Defense Department official
Daniel Ellsburg, the papers show that federal officials have lied
to the American public about the war in Vietnam. Ellsburg is indicted
on charges of espionage and conspiracy.
Look magazine stops publication.
Winds of War, by novelist Herman Wouk, is published.
Two-Lane Blacktop, starring Warren Oats and singer-songwriter James
Taylor, premiers at movie theaters.
Where Has Tommy Flowers Gone?, by playwright Terrence McNally,
premiers off Broadway.
All in the Family, starring Carroll O'Connor and Jean Stapleton
as Archie and Edith Bunker, premiers on CBS television. Columbo,
staring Peter Falk, premiers on NBC television.
Jesus Christ Superstar makes its Broadway debut.
Imagine, by John Lennon, is a popular song.
Lt. William Calley is convicted of killing 20 Vietnam civilians
and is sentenced to 10 years in prison. President Nixon pardons
Calley 6 days later.
Rock legend Jim Morrison dies in a Paris hotel. Although a probable
drug overdose is suspected, no autopsy is performed. Morrison's
death certificate lists heart failure as the cause of death.
The Pittsburg Pirates defeat the Baltimore Orioles 4 games to 3
to win the World Series.
The Washington Senators, a major league baseball team, become the
An earthquake hits Los Angeles, killing 51 and injuring approximately
An average American eats 110 pounds of beef per year.
The album Runes, by rock group Led Zeppelin, is released on the
A riot at Attica State Prison in New York leaves 39 inmates dead,
4 guards dead, and more than 90 wounded.
The Twenty-Sixth Amendment, lowering the voting age from 21 to
18, is ratified.
The U.S. population is 205 million. The population of Communist
China is 760 million.
United Church of Christ director of racial justice, Ben Chavis,
is convicted of firebombing a grocery store in Washington, D.C.
during a racial disturbance. Chavis and 9 others reportedly involved
in the firebombing are sentenced from 25 to 35 years in prison.
During clashes between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland,
470 are killed.
Five burglars are arrested during a break-in at Democratic Headquarters
in the Watergate Building Complex. The burglars are identified as
Virgilio Gonzalez, James McCord, Eugenio Martinez, Bernard Baker,
and Frank Sturgis. John Mitchell, Nixon's campaign manager, states,
"They were not operating with our consent or on our behalf."
President Nixon is re-elected in a landslide victory over George
While campaigning for the Democratic nomination for president,
Governor George Wallace is shot by Arthur Bremer, leaving Wallace
The U.S. Supreme Court rules the death penalty unconstitutional,
citing it as "cruel and unjust punishment."
A Congressional bill is authorized to build a spacecraft that will
lift off as a rocket and return as an airplane.
The Sunshine Boys, by Neil Simon, opens on Broadway.
The Waltons premiers on CBS television.
Deliverance, starring Jon Voight and Burt Reynolds, opens at movie
You Don't Mess Around With Jim, by Jim Croce, is a popular song.
The Soviets land a spacecraft on Venus.
The U.S. lands a manned spacecraft on the moon.
The Dow Jones Average closes at more than 1,000 for the first time.
Vietnam peace talks are suspended.
More than 30 percent of U.S. petroleum is imported.
A human skull found in Africa dates the first human to 2.5 million
Second-hand cigarette smoke is reported as dangerous by the U.S.
Federal Express is founded in Memphis, Tennessee.
Washington Post reporters Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward report
a link between the Watergate break-in and the Committee for the
Re-Election of the President, also known as CREEP.
The Terminal Man, by Michael Crichton, is published.
The average U.S. farmer produces enough food for 50 people.
A recommendation by a U.S. grocery committee is issued to permit
the design of electronic devices that scan the price of items at
supermarkets. "A computer will record prices automatically,"
a report says, "eliminating human error."
"Abortion should be a decision between a woman and her physician,"
the U.S. Supreme Court rules in Roe vs. Wade.
Oil shortages and rising grain prices result in the worst depression
since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Members of the media claim there is no real shortage of oil but
that major oil companies are involved in a plot to increase prices.
Gravity's Rainbow, by novelist Thomas Pynchon, is published.
The Hot L Baltimore opens on Broadway.
The Paper Chase opens at movie theaters.
Give Me Love, by former Beatle George Harrison, is a popular song.
Miami beats Los Angeles to win the Super Bowl.
Israeli fighter planes shoot down 13 Syrian MIG jets. Fighting
erupts and the fourth Israeli-Arab war since Israel was established
in 1948 begins.
Archibald Cox is named special Watergate prosecutor.
The five Watergate burglars plead guilty to breaking and entering.
Nixon's aides Halderman and Erlichman resign. Former White House
counsel John Dean implicates other members of Nixon's private staff
during testimony before a Senate committee investigating the break-in.
America's combat death toll in Vietnam exceeds 50,000. U.S. troops
leave Vietnam. U.S. bombing of North Vietnam continues. Members
of the media report that hundreds of U.S. soldiers are being held
prisoner by the North Vietnamese. Some reports claim that thousands
of U.S. soldiers, listed as missing in action, have been left behind
in POW camps.
Vice President Spiro Agnew pleads no contest to income tax evasion
and resigns from office. Nixon appoints Gerald Ford vice president.
Breakfast of Champions, by novelist Kurt Vonnegut Jr., is published.
Nixon discharges special investigator Archibald Cox when Cox insists
that Nixon turn in tape recordings pertaining to the Watergate break-in.
Sweden's King Gustavus VI dies at age 90. He is succeeded by his
grandson, Carl Gustavus XVI.
Word processors begin replacing typewriters. IBM developed a word
processor 10 years earlier. The $10,000 price, however, made it
impractical to be sold on the public market. The new word processors
sell for approximately $1,200.
The Supreme Court rules that President Nixon must turn over White
House tape recordings to a special prosecutor.
The House Judiciary Committee votes to charge Nixon with three
articles of impeachment, obstruction of justice, failure to uphold
laws, and refusal to produce subpoenaed material.
Nixon resigns from office, become the first U.S. president to do
College students across the nation gather in large crowds to celebrate
Nixon's resignation. At one of these celebrations, an anti-war activist
calls Nixon's removal from office "the greatest event in this
nation's history since Thomas Jefferson signed the Declaration of
Gerald Ford is sworn in as President of the United States. Ford
grants Nixon a full pardon.
Ford asks Congress to appropriate $850,000 to aide Nixon in his
transition to private life. Congress reduces the amount to $200,000.
The CAT scanner, developed by Electrical Musical Instruments Corp.
with money from the sale of Beatle records, becomes widely used
to detect cancer.
People magazine begins publication.
All the President's Men, by Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, is
Grenada gains independence from British rule.
India explodes its first atomic device.
Race riots erupt in Boston when whites protest the integration
of blacks into a completely white public school. The National Guard
is called out to disperse the rioters.
IRAs, Individual Retirement Accounts, are established. The tax-deductible
accounts provide private pension plans.
The Dow Jones Industrial Average hits a low of 570.01.
Oil prices increase from $2.50 per barrel to $11.25 per barrel.
Nuclear laboratory technician Karen Silkwood dies in an automobile
crash on her way to meet with a newspaper reporter to document her
claims that her employer falsified quality-control reports. Investigators
discover high levels of radiation in Silkwood's residence.
A nationwide speed limit of 55 mph is established by a presidential
Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance, by Robert Pirsig, is
Bad Habits, by playwright Terence McNally, premiers on Broadway.
Chinatown, starring Jack Nicholson and Faye Dunaway, opens at movie
The Way We Were is a popular song.
Watergate conspirators H.R. Halderman, John Erlichman, John Mitchell,
and Robert Marclian are sentenced to prison.
The United Nations votes to define Zionism as a "form of racism
and racial discrimination.”
Chiang Kai-shek dies at age 87.
North Vietnamese forces capture Saigon. U.S. helicopters evacuate
more than 1,300 Americans and more than 5,000 Vietnamese. More than
56,000 U.S. soldiers died in the war. Congress votes to appropriate
$400 million to resettle an estimated 150,000 refugees into the
Coffee is $1.25 per pound. Sugar is 30 cents per pound. Bread costs
35 cents per loaf. Potatoes are 25 cents per pound. Milk is $1.25
An earthquake in Pakistan kills more than 5,000.
Tangled Up In Blue, by Bob Dylan, is a popular song.
In what was termed the Thrilla in Manilla, Mohammad Ali knocks
out Joe Frazier in the fourteenth round to retain the World Heavyweight
A $12 million settlement is awarded 1,200 plaintiffs whose rights
were violated four years earlier during anti-war demonstrations
in Washington, D.C.
The U.S. Supreme Court rules that students cannot be suspended
from school for misconduct, unless their presence poses a physical
Crases of four commercial jetliners in a four-month period kill
William Gates, 19, founds Microsoft.
The Altair is the first personal computer with microprocessor chips.
Terms of Endearment, by author Larry McMurty, is published.
Streaking is a popular fad.
Saturday Night Live premiers on NBC television.
Jaws opens at movie theaters.
Shenandoah preiiers on Broadway.
Disco, introduced in the late fifties, begins a resurgence.
Supersonic Concorde flights begin between U.S. and Europe.
Apple Computer is founded with $1,500 by Steven Jobs and Stephen
Wozniak. The two college dropouts begin producing personal computers
in a garage.
At the recommendation of President Ford, more than 50 million Americans
are inoculated after reports of an impending swine flu epidemic.
The warnings prove to be false. Less than 10 cases of swine flu
are reported. More than 500 of those inoculated are paralyzed due
to the vaccine. Law suits on behalf of the paralyzed victims are
filed against the government.
Legionnaire's disease, a rare form of pneumonia, kills 29 American
Legion members who attended a meeting at a Philadelphia hotel.
The Cincinnati Reds defeat the New York Yankees 4 games to 0 to
win the World Series.
A college student, suffering from epilepsy, dies of starvation
after months of being exorcised of "demons" at the recommendation
of a Catholic priest and a bishop.
Facsimile (fax) machines are produced that reduce the transmission
time of six minutes for a single page to three minutes.
The MacNeil-Lerner report debuts on Public Broadcasting television.
Ted Turner founds Atlanta's WTBS.
The Boys From Brazil, by novelist Ira Levin, is published.
For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide When the Rainbow
is Enuf, by playwright Paulete Williams, opens on Broadway.
Blind Ambition, by former White House counselor John W. Dean, is
Bound for Glory, starring Keith Carradine as folk singer Woodie
Guthrie, premiers at movie theaters.
The Muppet Show premiers on P.B.S. The show's creator, Jim Henson,
is told by critics that the show will flop. The show quickly gains
popularity and is watched by more than 250 million viewers in more
than 100 countries.
Punk rock becomes popular among England's working-class youth.
John Lennon's rendition of Stand By Me is a popular song.
Overruling a 1972 decision by the U.S. Supreme Court that the death
penalty is cruel and unjust punishment, the U.S. Supreme Court rules
that the death penalty is not cruel and unjust punishment.
Jimmy Carter defeats Gerald Ford to become the first Southern president
in more than 100 years.
Perrier water is introduced for sale on the U.S. market. Although
consumers prefer cheaper brands in blind taste tests, sales of Perrier
quickly exceed sales of other brands.
President Carter pardons Vietnam draft evaders.
The U.S. Supreme Court rules that criminal suspects who voluntarily
enter a police station may be interrogated without informing them
of their legal rights.
The average price of gas in the U.S. is 69.9 cents per gallon.
Five years short of its hundredth anniversary, the Orient Express
makes its last trip from Istanbul to Paris.
Two commercial jetliners collide, killing 582.
Tagamet, an ulcer-treatment drug, is sold on the U.S. market with
The Dragons of Eden, by scientist Carl Sagan, is published.
The Thorn Birds, by novelist Colleen McCollough, is published.
The Elephant Man, by playwright Bernard Pomerance, opens at a London
Approximately 175,000 Asian refugees are admitted into the U.S.
A cyclone kills more than 10,000 in India.
A medical study links saccharin to cancer in rats.
Food coloring in bacon is reported to cause cancer.
The Love Boat premiers on ABC television.
Close Encounters of the Third Kind opens at movie theaters.
Reports of an on-tour Beatle reunion end when John Lennon says,
Charlie Chaplin dies at age 88.
Little Orphan Annie opens on Broadway.
Hotel California, by the Eagles, is a popular song.
Elvis Presley, 42, dies at Graceland, his mansion in Memphis, Tennessee.
Although reportedly attributed to prescription drugs, the cause
of death is listed as "heart failure."
Bing Crosby, 73, collapses and dies of a heart attack on a golf
At his request, convicted murderer Gary Gilmore is executed by
a firing squad in Utah.
Son of Sam serial killer David Berkowitz is arrested in New York
City. The 24-year-old postal worker claims his neighbor's dog told
him to commit the murders.
Canada stops granting licenses to carry handguns. Canada's crime
An earthquake in Romania kills an estimated 2,000.
The first gambling casino in the U.S., outside of Nevada, opens
in Atlantic City, New Jersey.
Disposable diapers appear on the public market.
A tornado in India kills 600.
An earthquake in Iran kills an estimated 25,000.
Scores of residents are evacuated from Love Canal in New York;
a toxic waste dump in the ‘40s and ‘50s. A high incident of birth
defects and diseases causes the evacuation.
A Soviet fighter jet fires on a commercial Korean jet airliner,
killing 2 and injuring 10. The airliner crash-lands on a frozen
North Vietnamese troops invade Cambodia. Armed with Soviet-supplied
weapons, the troops drive out Cambodia's political regime.
President Carter signs into law a bill raising the mandatory age
of most workers to 70.
The world's first test-tube baby is born.
A large number of Vietnam veterans are denied admission to major
colleges because minority-admissions programs have reduced the number
of places open to white applicants. The U.S. Supreme Court rules
that reverse discrimination is unconstitutional but that colleges
can consider race and ethnic origin to obtain diversity among students.
Unsure of what the Supreme Court means, civil-liberty lawyers ask
for a clarification of the ruling. None is given.
The U.S. unemployment rate is 6 percent.
President Carter signs a $19 billion tax-cut bill.
Trying to see if it is commercially feasible to produce electricity
from the hydrogen in seawater, scientists obtain a temperature of
60 million degrees Fahrenheit using nuclear technology, falling
short of the 100 million degrees necessary to extract hydrogen from
Dallas beats Denver to win the Super Bowl.
Leon Spinks beats Mohammad Ali in a 15-round decision to win the
Heavy Weight boxing title.
The last of 20 million Volkswagen Beetles produced since 1949 in
Germany rolls off the assembly line. Volkswagen plants in other
countries will continue to produce Beetles.
Commercial airliner crashes kill 582.
The Director of Health Education and Welfare terms smoking "a
Garfield debuts in newspaper comics.
More than 80 percent of U.S. households have color television.
The World According to Garp, by novelist John Irving, is published.
•Dallas begins a 13-year run on CBS television.
The Deer Hunter, starring Robert DeNiro and Christopher Walken,
premiers at movie theaters.
The Buddy Holly Story, starring Gary Busey, premiers at movie theaters.
Busey will win an Oscar for best actor for his portrayal of the
legendary rock and roll star.
Ain't Misbehavin', with music and lyrics by Fats Waller, who died
in 1943, opens on Broadway.
Several hundred people in a six-mile square area die when a biological
warfare test at a laboratory in Russia accidentally release anthrax
Mad Max, starring Mel Gibson, opens at movie theaters.
Gold prices reach $400 per ounce.
More than 140,000 people are evacuated following an accident at
Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.
Due to manipulated oil prices resulting in a purposely imposed
decrease of gas transported to U.S. filling stations, motorists
wait in long lines to obtain a few gallons at a time.
Commercial airliner crashes kill 836.
More than 5,000 die in U.S. as the result of motorcycle accidents.
Congress passes a bill guaranteeing $1.2 billion in loans to Chrysler
to prevent the company from going bankrupt.
Jerry Falwell founds the Moral Majority. The group registers millions
of voters in an effort to impede reform of the criminal code, block
the Equal Rights Amendment, and disrupt the White House Family Conference.
U.S. students' SAT scores begin declining significantly.
Morning Edition premiers on PBS radio.
Sony introduces the Walkman, a $200 pocket stereo.
The Pittsburgh Pirates defeat the Baltimore Orioles 4 games to
3 to win the World Series.
An earthquake in Iran kills more than 1,000.
Cable Satellite Public Affairs Network (C-SPAN) begins broadcasting
political news events.
Service begins to make the Internet accessible to the public.
The Gnostic Gospels, by historian Elaine Hiesey, is published.
A Bend in the River, by novelist V.S. Naipaul, is published.
On Golden Pond, by playwright Ernest Thompson, premiers on Broadway.
Knott's Landing, a spin-off from Dallas, begins a 14-year run on
Wise Blood, based on a story by Flannery O'Conner, opens at movie
John Wayne dies at age 72.
Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat opens at Westminster
Theatre in London.
Do Ya' Think I'm Sexy, by Rod Stewart, is a popular song.
In a stampede for seats, 11 are crushed to death at a Who concert
Republican Ronald Reagan defeats incumbent Jimmy Carter by an 85
percent margin to win the presidential election.
Mount St. Helens erupts in Washington state, killing hundreds of
A fire at the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas kills 84.
The flourishing drug smuggling trade makes banks in Miami, Florida,
the largest users of $100 bills.
Murders of black children in Atlanta resume. Twelve children are
killed by an unknown assailant. Police have no clues.
Canadian hockey player Scott Olsen founds Rollerblade Incorporated.
The Philadelphia Phillies defeat the Kansas City Royals 4 games
to 2 to win their first World Series.
John Lennon produces the Double Fantasy album.
The Empire Strikes Back opens at movie theaters.
The Transit of Venus, by novelist Julian Barnes, is published.
The U.S. Supreme Court rules that the press and the public have
the right to attend criminal trials.
An act of Congress forbids unannounced searches of newsrooms. •Cable
News Network goes on the air.
SAT scores of high school students continue to decline. Educators
claim television is a contributing factor to the lower scores.
Commercial airliner crashes kill 662.
A Philippine passenger ship collides with an oil tanker, killing
more than 300. The captain of the passenger ship was reportedly
drinking and gambling when the collision occurred.
A Rolls-Royce sells for $120,000.
More than 100 are killed or injured in a train wreck in Poland.
Up from an average of 65.9 cents per gallon at the beginning of
1979, gas prices average $115.9 per gallon.
Personal bankruptcies in the U.S. increase by 80 percent.
The prime-interest rate for bank loans reaches 21.5 percent.
Iraqi jets attack Iranian airfields, beginning an eight-year war.
John Lennon is shot to death outside his New York City residence.
More than 100,000 mourners in Central Park participate in a moment
of silence to honor Lennon's memory. Two days before his death,
Lennon bought bullet-proof vests for the New York City Police Department.
"If only he had been wearing one," a reporter writes.
Hurricane David kills more than 600 and leaves more than 200,000
homeless in the Caribbean.
An earthquake in Italy kills more than 2,000.
U.S. bans the use of hormones in cattle feed. Europe follows suit.
Ten hunger strikers die in a Belfast, Ireland prison. After being
elected to Parliament while serving a 14-year prison sentence, Bobby
Sands dies after more than 2 months without food.
Sandra Day O'Connor becomes the first woman justice on the U.S.
Actor Peter Sellers, 50, dies of a heart attack.
U.S. armed Salvadorian troops open fire on unarmed civilians, killing
and wounding more than 1,000.
IBM introduces its first personal computer for sale on the public
The Mosquito Coast, by novelist Paul Theroux, is published.
Being There, starring Peter Sellers, is nominated for an Academy
Hill Street Blues and Miami Vice premier on NBC television. Dynasty
premiers on ABC television.
Bette Davis Eyes is a popular song.
MTV debuts on cable television.
First-class postage stamps in U.S. increase from 18 cents to 22
Midnight's Children, by novelist Salman Rushdie, is published.
A Soldier's Play, by playwright Charles Fuller, opens off-Broadway.
Chariots of Fire premiers at movie theaters.
The Los Angeles Dodgers defeat the New York Yankees 4 games to
2 to win the World Series.
World population is 4.5 billion. Communist China's population is
approximately 1 billion. U.S. population is 228 million. India's
population is 675 million.
Iran releases U.S. hostages taken prisoner in 1980.
President Reagan and three others are shot during an assassination
Small Afghan querilla groups continue to battle against Soviet
occupation forces. More than 10,000 Russian casualities have occured
since the conflict began in 1979.
Christian and Jewish forces in Israel shoot down two Syrian helicopters.
Egypt's President Anwar el-Sadat is assassinated.
Israeli jets bomb Beirut, killing more than 100 civilians and injuring
more than 200.
U.S. Marines evacuate more than 5,000 Palestinian soldiers from
Beirut after Israel agrees to peace talks.
Christian radicals massacre Palestinians in Beirut.
A Vietnam War Memorial with the names of 57,692 killed or missing
U.S. soldiers is dedicated in Washington, D.C.
An estimated one million protesters gather in New York City's Central
Park during demonstrations against the production of nuclear arms.
Unemployment in the U.S. exceeds 10 percent.
Jetliner crashes kill 431.
Honda begins production of cars in the U.S.
Seven die from bottles of Tylenol laced with cyanide. More than
30 million Tylenol capsules are recalled and destroyed. Tylenol
is reintroduced on the public market in safety-sealed containers.
Pump Boys and Dinettes opens off-Broadway.
E.T. debuts at movie theaters.
Henry Fonda, Grace Kelly, and Ingrid Bergman die.
Little Shop of Horrors opens off-Broadway.
Up Where We Belong is a popular song.
Paul McCartney records Here Today as a memorial to John Lennon.
The St. Louis Cardinals defeat the Milwaukee Brewers 4 games to
3 to win the World Series.
The conviction of Wayne B. Williams for murder clears 23 of the
30 killings of black youths in Atlanta, Georgia.
An estimated one out of ten Americans smoke marijuana.
President Reagan begins the "War on Drugs."
Eating Raoul debuts at movie theaters.
Chronical of a Death Foretold, by novelist Gabriel Garcia Marquez,
A Soviet fighter jet shoots down a commercial Korean jetliner on
route from New York to Seoul, killing all 269 on board.
Terrorists blow up the U.S. Embassy in Beirut, killing 63.
The U.S. Supreme Court rules that life in prison with no chance
of parole is unconstitutional.
President Reagan signs into legislation a law increasing the tax
paid by retirees.
Crack, a smokeable form of cocaine, begins appearing in the U.S.
Cellular phones, costing $3,000, are introduced on the public market.
Mobile phones have existed since the early forties, but the limited
transmission made sale on the public market impractical.
Vietnam: A History, by journalist Paul Johnson, is published.
Ironweed, by William Kennedy, is published.
Glengarry Glen Ross, by playwright David Mamet, opens at a London
Terms of Endearment, starring Shirley MacLaine and Jack Nicholson,
opens at movie theaters.
Disneyland opens in Tokyo.
Every Breath You Take is a popular song.
The Baltimore Orioles defeat the Philadelphia Phillies 4 games
to 1 to win the World Series.
An earthquake in Turkey kills more than 1,000.
Commenting on the diversity of minorities on his advisory board,
Secretary of the Interior James G. Watts says, "I have a black,
a woman, two Jews, and a cripple." Watts resigns under pressure.
U.S. farmers are paid $20 billion for not planting crops.
Meditations in Green, by novelist Stephen Wright, is published.
A terrorist in Lebanon drives a truck loaded with explosives into
a building occupied by U.S. marines, killing 241.
Ibuprofen appears on the public market in England.
War between Iraq and Iran continues. More than 150,000, many of
them civilians, have been killed during the conflict.
More than 1,000 are killed in India during riots between Moslems
U.S. Commission on Civil Rights votes to stop quotas for the promotion
of black workers. "Such racial preferences," the Commission
says, "merely constitute another form of discrimination."
The Macintosh, a personal computer, is introduced by Apple on the
A 3.5 inch diskette for storing computer information is introduced
on the public market.
The U.S. Supreme Court rules that home video tape recordings do
not infringe on copyrights.
The Unbearable Lightness of Being, by novelist Milan Kundera, is
The Foreigner, by playwright Larry Shue, opens on Broadway.
The Killing Fields debuts at movie theaters.
The first edition of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, a comic book,
What's Love Got To Do With It is a popular song.
U.S. athletes win 174 gold medals at the Olympic games in Los Angeles.
The Detroit Tigers defeat the San Diego Padres 4 games to 1 to
win the World Series.
Trivial Pursuit is introduced on the public market. Sales of the
board game exceed $750 million.
Security guard Oliver Huberty enters a McDonald's, opens fire with
an automatic rifle, a pistol, and a shotgun, killing 20 and wounding
16. Police kill Huberty.
Bernhard Goetz shoots four black teenagers trying to rob him on
a New York City subway. Public support rallies behind Goetz. Goetz
is indicted for attempted murder and acquitted. He serves an eight-month
jail sentence for illegal possession of a firearm.
More than one million die of starvation in Africa.
Passengers aboard a highjacked commercial jetliner are held hostage
for 17 days in Beirut.
Actor Rock Hudson, 59, dies of AIDS.
Flaubert's Parrot, by novelist Julian Barnes, is published.
A Lie of the Mind, by Sam Shepard, opens on Broadway.
Purple Rose of Cairo, starring Woody Allen and Mia Farrow, opens
at movie theaters.
Big River, with music and lyrics by Roger Miller, opens on Broadway.
Live Aid, a rock concert organized by Bob Geldorf, raises more
than $50 million for starving Africans. Bob Dylan and Mick Jagger
are among the stars who perform.
Centerfield, by John Fogerty, is a popular song.
Compact disc players and compact discs are introduced on the public
Steve Cram runs the mile in 3:46:31, setting a new world record.
Pete Rose of the Cincinnati Reds, gets his 4,192 hit, breaking
Ty Cobb's record.
The Kansas City Royals defeat the St. Louis Cardinals 4 games to
3 to win the World Series.
An earthquake in Mexico kills more than 5,000.
More than 25,000 die in Columbia when a volcano erupts.
Coca-Cola introduces the "New Coke." The "new and
improved" beverage is a failure on the public market.
Reports of a large hole in the ozone layer are made public.
Cocoon opens at movie theaters.
Lonesome Dove, by novelist Larry McMurty, is published.
RCA merges with General Electric.
U.S. officials arrest and deport guru Bhagwhan Shree Rajneesh to
Commercial jetliner crashes kill 989.
President Reagan ends tax credits for the development of alternative
forms of energy, such as solar and wind.
The U.S. becomes a debtor nation for the first time in more than
The U.S. space shuttle Challenger explodes after liftoff, killing
the seven astronauts aboard. Investigations reveal that NASA launched
the space craft despite warnings by engineers not to do so in cold
weather. The temperature at the time of the launch was near freezing.
Since Reagan became President in 1981, the national debt has doubled
from $1 trillion to $2 trillion.
The Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Soviet Russia explodes, sending
clouds of radioactive fallout over Europe and toward the U.S. An
estimated 30,000 will die of cancer as the result of the fallout
in the next 10 years. Millions of acres of Soviet land will be uninhabitable
for 20,000 years.
A U.S. law is passed making it illegal for hospitals to not treat
patients who can't afford to pay.
The Real Life of Alejando Mayta, by Mario Vargas Liosa, is published.
Lend Me a Tenor, by playwright Ken Ludwig, opens in London.
L.A. Law premiers on NBC television.
The Mosquito Coast opens at movie theaters.
Screen legend Cary Grant, 80, dies.
Phantom of the Opera, starring Michael Crawford, opens at a London
Graceland is a popular album.
Basketball celebrity Len Bias dies of a cocaine overdose.
The New York Mets defeat the Boston Red Sox 4 games to 3 to win
the World Series.
Mike Tyson knocks out Trevor Berbick in the second round to become
World Heavyweight Boxing Champion.
Nintendo video games appear on the U.S. public market.
An estimated 150,000 pounds of cocaine are smuggled into the U.S.
An underwater volcano explodes producing toxic gas that kills more
than 1,500 in Cameroon. Iraqi missiles hit the U.S. ship Stark,
Reagan signs a law allowing millions of illegal aliens to remain
in the country legally.
A European pharmaceutical company dumps more than two million pounds
of toxic waste into the Rhine, killing millions of fish and polluting
Chrysler buyes American Motors.
Commercial jetliner crashes kill 611.
A passenger ship collides with a tanker off the Phillipine coast,
killing more than 1,500.
Praise the Lord minister resigns after admitting he cheated on
his wife, Tammy Faye.
Presumed Innocent, by novelist Scott Turow, is published.
Driving Miss Daisy, by playwright Alfred Vhry, opens on Broadway.
Raising Arizona, starring Nicolas Cage and Holly Hunter, premiers
at movie theaters.
Somewhere Out There is a popular song.
The Minnesota Twins defeat the St. Louis Cardinals 4 games to 3
to win the World Series.
Wall Street businessman Ivan F. Boesky is sentenced to prison for
Former U.S. Treasury Secretary Robert Anderson is convicted of
Saudi police fire on Shiites visiting Mecca, killing more than
Andy Warhol, 58, dies. •An avalanch in Columbia kills more than
An earthquake in Los Angeles kills 1 and injures more than 100.
There are 12 million microwave ovens in the U.S.
The war between Iran and Iraq continues. An estimated 200,000,
many of them civilians, have died during the fighting.
The Swedish film My Life as a Dog opens at movie theaters.
Burn This, by playwright Lanford Wilson, opens on Broadway.
Congress overrules President Reagan's veto of a highway appropriation
Israeli soldiers fire into a crowd of rock-throwing Arab youths,
The commander of a U.S. battleship mistakenly shoots down an Iranian
passenger jet, killing 290.
Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega is indicted by U.S. Grand Juries
on charges of bribery for reportedly accepting millions in pay-offs
from drug traffikers.
A trade agreement eliminating tariffs on Canadian goods exported
into the U.S. is signed into law.
U.S. unemployment is 5.5 percent.
When asked if he plans to keep his pledge not to raise taxes, president-elect
George Bush says, "Read my lips. No new taxes."
Passenger jet crashes kill 514.
Every modern industrial nation except the U.S. has a national health-care
program. U.S. health care costs spiral out of control, accounting
for more than 10% of the gross national product.
Television evangelist Jimmy Swaggert admits to having sex with
a prostitute. He is ordered to stay off TV for a year, but returns
in three months.
Ted Turner founds T.N.T., Turner Network Television.
An earthquake kills more than 25,000 in the Soviet Union.
Phillip Morris and Kraft merge.
U.S. Supreme Court rules unanimously that Hustler magazine's criticism
of evangelist Jerry Falwell was within the rights protected by the
The Consequences of American Economic Policy Under Reagan, by Benjamin
Friedman, is published.
The Satanic Verses, by novelist Salman Rushdie, is published.
Speed-the-Plow, by playwright David Mamet, premiers on Broadway.
Another Woman opens at movie theaters.
The album Rattle and Hum is released by Irish rock group U2.
The Los Angeles Dodgers defeat the Oakland Athletics 4 games to
1 to win the World Series.
U.S. athletes win 94 gold medals at the Olympic games in Seoul.
Canadian Ben Johnson wins the 100-meter dash, but loses the gold
medal for using steroids.
Former Praise the Lord minister Jim Baker is fined $500,000 and
sentenced to 45 years in prison for diverting approximately $4 million
in donations from his followers into private accounts that he used
to buy mansions, an air-conditioned dog house, and a multitude of
Every Rose Has Its Thorn is a popular song.
The U.S. Supreme Court rules that burning the American flag in
public protests is a right protected by the First Amendment.
Communist soldiers fire into a crowd of student protestors in Beijing,
China's Tianamen Square, killing thousands. Leaders of the student
movement for democracy are executed.
The Supreme Court rules that a program requiring public works funds
be set aside for minority-owned firms is unconstitutional, calling
such programs "reverse discrimination.”
Oldest Living Confederate Widow Tells All, by novelist Allan Gurganas,
Surrealist painter Salvador Dali dies at age 84. •Nine passengers
aboard a commercial airliner are sucked out over the Pacific Ocean
when a cargo door is ripped off the jetliner.
Driving Miss Daisy, starring Jessica Tandy and Morgan Freeman,
premiers at movie theaters.
City of Angels opens on Broadway.
The largest oil spill in U.S. history occurs when the tanker Exxon
Valdez runs aground off the coast of Alaska, spilling 240,000 barrels
of oil. The captain of the tanker is fired for drinking on the job.
Hurricane Hugo pounds the Carolinas, leaving thousands homeless.
An earthquake in San Francisco kills more than 90 people, most
of whom are crushed when the upper level of a highway collapses.
Arab militants burn 2,000 acres of trees in a national park in
The Oakland Athletics defeat the San Francisco Giants 4 games to
0 to win the World Series.
Pete Rose is suspended from baseball for life for reportedly betting
on baseball games.
President Bush signs an act that bails out banks at the expense
of taxpayers. Many elderly lose a life-time of savings that are
Buddy, starring Paul Hipp, as the legendary Buddy Holly, premiers
at London's Palace Theatre.
My Left Foot opens at movie theaters.
Israeli troops fire on stone-throwing Palestinian youths, killing
17 and wounding more than 100. The United Nations votes unanimously
to support a U.S. resolution condemning Israel's excessive use of
Soviet citizens are given the right to own business enterprises.
President Bush signs into law tax increases after being elected
on a promise of no new taxes. The spiraling national debt created
during the 1980s by the Reagan administration continues to massively
Iraq invades and seizes Kuwait. The world boycotts Iraqi oil.
Passenger jet crashes kill 387.
Manufactured by General Motors in Springhill, Tennessee, the Saturn
automobile is introduced on the public market.
Commercial Internet services begin.
Rabbit at Rest, by novelist John Updike, is published.
Ghost opens at movie theaters.
The Simpsons, starring a cartoon family, opens on FOX TV.
Buster Douglas knocks out Mike Tyson to become World Heavyweight
The Reds defeat the A's 4 games to 0 to win the World Series.
Evander Holyfield defeats Buster Douglas to become the World Heavyweight
A Cuban immigrant is charged with 87 counts of murder after a New
York City social club is burned down, killing 87 people.
The cost of housing a prisoner in the U.S. is more than a year's
tuition at Yale. U.S. prisons house more than 1,225,000 inmates.
Winds exceeding 100 miles per hour kill more than 140 on the coast
Earthquakes in Iran kill more than 50,000.
The U.S. Supreme Court rules that a state can require a pregnant
minor inform her parents before having an abortion.
The FDA approves a contraceptive that is implanted beneath the
skin and slowly releases a birth-control ingredient.
Stores in Russia run out of bread, increasing the threat of famine.
Congress approves legislation permitting President Bush to declare
war on Iraq if it does not withdraw from Kuwait. U.S. missiles bomb
targets in Iraq.
Iraqi missiles strike targets in Israel. Israel does not retaliate.
The U.S. sends in surface-to-air missiles. Operated by U.S. servicemen,
the missiles destroy airborne Iraqi missiles.
Operation Desert Storm ends in less than five days, after more
than a quarter million U.S., French, and British troops enter Iraq
and defeat Iraqi troops. Saddam Hussein remains in power.
Eastern and Pan Am Airlines cease operations.
The U.S. Supreme Court rules that communities can prohibit nude
The World Wide Web allows the exchange of images and messages through
The Substance of Fire opens on Broadway.
Thelma and Louise premiers at movie theaters.
The Twins defeat the Braves 4 games to 2 to win the World Series.
A cyclone kills more than 150,000 in Bangladesh.
More than 20,000 Americans are evacuated when a volcano erupts
in the Philippines.
Bread - 65 cents a loaf. Milk - $2.00 per gallon. Eggs - 90 cents
a dozen. Ground beef - $1.49 per pound. Chicken - 69 cents per pound.
World population is 5.5 billion, an increase of 2 billion in 20
U.S. population is 250 million. The population of Communist China
is 1.2 billion.
Welcome to the Jungle, by Guns N' Roses, is a popular song.
No Children Here, a nonfictional account of life in a Chicago housing
project by reporter Alex Kotlowitz, is published.
Soviet troops seize a Russian television station, killing 15 and
wounding more than 100.
President Bush pardons six Reagan administration officials, including
former Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, who were indicted
for lying to Congress about the Iran-Contra affair, in which weapons
were exchanged for hostages and the proceeds from selling the weapons
were used to buy arms for Nicaragua contras.
Incumbent George Bush is defeated by Democrat Bill Clinton in the
The Pentagon criticizes the Navy's inquiry into the Tailhook sexual
harassment incident, charging that high-ranking Naval officers tried
to cover up the facts about a convention of naval pilots at which
more than 20 women, including 14 officers, while running a guantlet
in the hall of a Las Vegas hotel, were surrounded by drunken male
officers who sexually assaulted the women.
Serbian troops in Bosnia open concentration camps and rape thousands
of Muslem women as part of a military policy.
More than 1,000 are killed during riots between Moslems and Hindus
From the beginning of the Reagan administration until the end of
the Bush administration, the national debt increases from $725 million
to more than $3 trillion.
The U.S. is the only modern industrialized nation without a national
health care system. More than 40 million Americans have no health
Outerbridge Reach, by former Army officer and novelist Robert Stone,
Conversations With My Father opens on Broadway.
Hero, starring Dustin Hoffman and Geena Davis, opens at movie theaters.
Marlene Deietrich, 90, dies in France.
Disneyland opens in Paris.
U.S. athletes win 37 gold medals at the Olympics in Barcelona.
The Toronto Blue Jays defeat the Atlanta Braves 4 games to 2 to
win the World Series.
Mafia leader John Gotti is convicted of murder and sentenced to
life in prison.
Hurricane Andrew hits Miami, Florida, killing four and leaving
more than 250,000 homeless.
An estimated 5,000 are killed by earthquakes in Turkey.
A bomb explodes at the World Trade Center in New York City, killing
4 and injuring hundreds. More than 100,000 evacuate the building.
FBI agents arrest Islamic terrorists and charge them with the crime.
U.S. forces join UN troops in Bosnia to help stop Serbian aggression.
•An earthquake in India kills an estimated 25,000.
More than one million in Africa die of starvation.
More than 2,000 children die of starvation each day.
Increased by the closing of mental institutions and long-term health
care facilities during the Reagan and Bush administrations, the
number of homeless in the U.S. is estimated to be between three
and five million.
The Mississippi and the Missouri rivers flood, killing more than
50 and causing an estimated $8 billion in property damages.
The Brady Bill requiring a five-day waiting period for handgun
purchases is signed into law by President Clinton. During the next
five years, background checks required as part of the bill will
prevent seven known felons from purchasing handguns.
Two new NFL teams, the Florida Marlins and the Colorado Rockies,
begin their first season.
The musical Kiss of the Spider Woman opens on Broadway.
Audrey Hepburn, 63, dies of cancer.
Jurassic Park, starring computer-enhanced dinosaurs, opens at movie
A Perfect Ganesh opens off-Broadway.
Lillian Gish, 99, dies.
Streets of Laredo, by novelist Larry McMurty, is published.
The pocket-size telephone craze begins in U.S. cities.
Law-enforcement officers storm a fundamentalist-religious compound
in Waco, Texas. The religious group's leader, David Koresh, plus
more than 80 group members, including 24 children, are killed.
Following the discovery of an Iraqi plot to kill President Bush
on a visit to Kuwait, U.S. Navy ships hit Iraqi military quarters
in Baghdad with cruise missiles.
Israeli-Palestinian peace talks stop after a Jewish terrorist fires
on praying Muslims inside a mosque, killing 32 and wounding an estimated
100. The Israeli extremist is beat to death by Muslims.
Voters reject democratic incumbents. Republicans gain control of
Congress for the first time since the Eisenhower administration.
Despite escalating human rights violations, President Clinton renews
Communist China's most-favored-nation status. Dangerous conditions
continue to exist in Chinese sweat shops that exploit women and
children workers who are paid less than 80 cents per day. A fire
in a toy factory in Bangkok kills 188 employees, 174 are women and
Commercial airliner crashes kill 746.
While in route to Stockholm on the Baltic Sea, a ferry carrying
more than 1,000 passengers capsizes. Only 141 survivors are rescued.
A railway under the English Channel, connecting France and England,
Poems 1968-1993, by Heather McHugh, is published.
Broken Glass, by playwright Arthur Miller, opens on Broadway.
Pulp Fiction, starring John Travolta and Samuel Jackson, opens
at movie theaters.
The musical Beauty and the Beast opens on Broadway.
Kurt Cobain, singer-songwriter of the rock group Nirvana, recovers
from a drug overdose and kills himself with a shotgun.
Major league baseball players go on strike. The average player
earns more than one million dollars per year. Many earn more than
five million dollars per year. An agreement isn't reached. The World
Series isn't played for the first time since 1904. •George Foreman,
45, knocks out Michael Moorer to become the oldest boxer to win
the Heavyweight World boxing title or a world title in any weight
Former professional running back O.J. Simpson is arrested following
a high-speed chase and charged with killing his ex-wife Nicole and
her friend Ronald Goldman.
An earthquake in Los Angeles kills more than 70, injures thousands,
and leaves more than 25,000 homeless.
The United Nations reports that the only way to avoid a global
catastrophe caused by over population is to give women more choice
in determining family size.
A bomb explodes in a Paris subway station, killing 7 and wounding
more than 80. Algerian terrorists claim responsibility.
The U.S. Supreme Court rules that programs which favor people on
race are unconstitutional. President Clinton says, "Affirmative
action has been good for America." Many corporations and universities
vote to end preferential treatment of minorities.
At the World Conference in Beijing, China, First Lady Hillary Clinton
heads the U.S. delegation, despite complaints that Communist China
has the most oppressive policies against women in the world. Chinese
women aren't allowed to vote. Female infants are allowed to starve
to death to provide room for male offsprings. Women and teenage
girls are used as slave labor.
O.J. Simpson is acquitted by a jury in California of killing his
ex-wife Nicole and her friend Ronald Goldman.
A Jewish militant assassinates Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin
following a peace rally in Tel Aviv.
The U.S. Supreme Court rules that using race in determining Congressional
districts is unconstitutional.
The Dow Jones Industrial Average exceeds 5,000.
After purchasing Lotus Development Corporation, a leading manufacturer
of software, IBM challenges Microsoft for leadership in the computer
Nuclear power plants produce 30 percent of Japan's electrical power.
A train in India suddenly stops to avoid hitting a cow. A train
coming from behind hits the first train, killing more than 300 people
and injuring more than 400.
President Clinton signs a law repealing the federally mandated
55-mile-per-hour speed limit.
Microsoft introduces Windows 95.
Fossils found in Spain indicate that humans were in Europe 800,000
The New Nationalism and the Fourth American Revolution, by nonfiction
author Michael Lind, is published.
Riding the Rap, by crime-fiction writer Elmore Leonard, is published.
The Food Chain opens off-Broadway.
Crumb opens at movie theaters.
Grateful Dead guitarist and songwriter Jerry Garcia dies at age
A car bomb topples a nine-story building in Oklahoma City, killing
163. Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols are indicted for the crime.
An earthquake in Japan kills more than 5,000, injures more than
20,000 and leaves more than 250,000 homeless.
Prosecutors in Germany file three charges of murder and more than
5,000 charges of attempted murder against two executives who allegedly
sold blood plasma contaminated with the AIDS virus.
Let Her Cry, by the rock group Hootie and the Blowfish, is a popular
A nerve-gas attack in a Tokyo subway kills 12 and injures more
A 39-year-old quadriplegic dies of pneumonia after winning a court
case allowing him to be removed from a ventilator then changing
A cargo plane explodes in a fiery crash on the busy streets of Zaire,
killing more than 200.
Jazz saxophonist Gerry Mulligan, who played with Duke Ellington,
Miles Davis, and Dave Brubeck, dies at age 68.
Things To Do When You're Dead opens at movie theaters.
William Wilkinson, who scored the first touchdown in the first
Orange Bowl, dies at age 82.
A man with tuberculosis is removed from an Amtrac train. Officials
say the search and testing of fellow passengers who might have been
exposed could take months. The man dies several weeks later.
The movie Pocahontas is released on video.
A commercial jetliner crashes in Peru, killing all 123 aboard.
Country comedy star Minnie Pearl dies at age 83.
A federal appeals court rules for the first time in U.S. history
that a terminally ill adult has the constitutional right to use
a doctor's help in committing suicide.
Tornadoes rip through Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia,
killing six and injuring dozens.
Two-time leader of the National League in home runs, Bill Nicholson,
dies at age 81.
House Republicans fail to override Clinton's veto of a bill paying
for environmental and Native American programs.
Lawyers for Hillary Clinton release 116 pages of billing records
as the Whitewater investigation continues.
President Clinton visits U.S. soldiers in Bosnia.
President Clinton names Army General Barry McGaffery as the new
drug policy director.
The Bosnian government arrests a Serb general and seven others
in connection with war crimes.
Bill Clinton is re-elected President, defeating Republican Bob
Compaq and Packard Bell agree to drop lawsuits that accuse each
other of selling used computers as new.
The U.S. Supreme Court rules that the government can seize property
linked to crime, even if the owner is blameless.
A computer consulting firm warns that consumers might have to spend
$600 billion on their computers to prevent glitches that may occur
in the year 2000.
Presidential panel criticizes the Pentagon for inadequately investigating
sick Gulf War Veterans. One out of three Gulf War Veterans say they
suffer from illnesses connected to the war.
A Rwandon court sentences two men to death in the country's efforts
to punish those responsible for the slaughter of 500,000 people
in 1994. The two, one a former hospital aide, the other a former
local administrator, will be hanged or executed by a firing squad
for genocide, rape, and crimes against humanity.
Billionaire Harry Helmsey, husband of Leona Helmsey, dies at age
President Clinton bestows the Presidential Medal of Freedom on
his defeated campaign opponent, Bob Dole.
Three-time All-Star and seven-time Gold Glove winner Curt Flood
dies at age 59. The former major-league outfielder sued Major League
baseball in 1970 to overturn a provision that bound players to their
team for the length of their contracts.
Divers searching for sunken treasure discover a World War II bomb
off the coast of Vero Beach, Florida.
Bungee jumper dies while practicing for the Super Bowl half-time
show when she falls more than 100 feet, crashing head first on the
A Florida judge rules that a man in the final stage of AIDS has
the right to commit suicide with the help of a doctor.
Jazz guitarist Zachary Breaux dies while trying to rescue a drowning
Earthquake in Iran kills more than 3,000. •Train wreck in Pakistan
kills more than 120. More than 400 passengers are injured.
The American Red Cross celebrates its 80th anniversary. •Six U.S.
Senators who fought in the Vietnam War gather to mark the 15th anniversary
of the Vietnam Veterans' Memorial in Washington, D.C. The six include
Chuck Hagel, John Kerry, Max Cleveland, Chuck Robb, and John McCain.
The black granite memorial bears the names of 58,196 dead and missing.
Trucking empire founder James Ryder dies at age 83. A speaker at
Ryder's eulogy says, "He was a business legend who makes today's
CEOs look like over-educated, bean-counting automatons who take
themselves way too seriously to have any real fun."
Six handcuffed and shackled prisoners die when a van transporting
them along a Tennessee highway explodes, burning them to death.
Poet Allen Ginsberg dies at age 70.
A jury orders ABC to pay $5.5 million for sending two reporters
undercover with hidden cameras for a story accusing a supermarket
chain of selling spoiled meat. The jury rules that ABC committed
trespassing and fraud.
A jury fines O.J. Simpson $25 million in punitive damages for the
slaying of his ex-wife and her friend. The judgement is in addition
to $8.5 million in compensatory damages awarded by the jury.
Sonny Bono dies in a skiing accident. At a gathering of mourners,
Sonny's former wife, Cher, says, "Some people were under the
misconception that Sonny was a short man, but he was heads and tails
taller than anyone else."
Accepting the Golden Globe Award for best actor for his performance
in Boogie Nights, Burt Reynolds says, "Please remember, if
you hang on to things long enough, they get back in style, like
"Don't eat turkey. It's cruel!" says pop singer Fiona
The rock group ZZ Top begins a U.S. tour.
The Big Lebowski, starring Jeff Bridges, opens at movie theaters.
Japan's economy faces one of the worst economic struggles since
World War II.
Linda McCartney, wife of former Beatle Paul McCartney, dies of
cancer in California.
Frank Sinatra dies at age 82.
Linwood Dunn, the creator of the special effects of the original
King Kong, dies at age 94.
The renowned cartoon character Bugs Bunny celebrates his 75th birthday.
Elmer Fudd turns 75 also.
Sgt. Mitch Wright, who was declared functionally blind by Air Force
doctors after being injured during a terrorist bombing in Saudi
Arabia, has his retirement pension reduced by the Department of
Veteran Affairs. Although Wright cannot see well enough to drive
or read, the VA reduces his disability pension from 100 percent
to 60 percent.
The U.S. Supreme Court refuses to reinstate a $452,000 award won,
then lost, by a woman who was sexually assaulted by a central Florida
policeman. The court rejects the woman's argument that the city
should be held responsible for the officer's actions.
The third annual awards for "Cellular Samaritans" are
given to citizens who use their cell phones to help get drunk drivers
off the road.
Quarterback Stan Humphries retires from the San Diego Chargers.
Every Day Is a Winding Road, by Sheryl Crow, is a popular song.
The U.S. Supreme Court rules that Domino's Pizza should be held
responsible for the sexual harassment received by a male employee
from a female supervisor. Domino's is ordered to pay $237,000 to
the male employee.
An ancient Buddhist healing cloth, known as The Mandala of the
Soul of the Universe, is exhibited at a Unitarian Church in Miami,
Florida. The cloth is thought to be more than 1,500 years old.
Hugh Thompson Jr. and Lawrence Coburn are given the Soldier's Medal
for landing their helicopter in the line of fire of Viet Cong who
were killing Vietnamese civilians in the village of My Lai in 1968.
A federal judge orders Iran to pay $248 million to the family of
an American killed in a suicide bombing in Gaza in 1995. The ruling
was the first under a new law allowing Americans to sue nations
thought to support terrorism for damages caused by such attacks.
The victim's family is unlikely to collect anytime soon.
The U.S. Senate acquits President Clinton on two articles of impeachment,
perjury and obstruction of justice. Senators vote 55-45 against
the perjury article and 50-50 on the obstruction of justice article.
A two-thirds majority, 67 votes, are required to oust a U.S. President
Stuart Little, starring a cartoon mouse with the voice of Michael
J. Fox, opens at theaters.
President Clinton proposes $690 million in housing vouchers to
help families make the transition from welfare to work.
President Clinton supports Pete Rose in his quest for reinstatement
to Major League Baseball.
U.S. and Cuba battle for the custody of 6-year-old Elian Gonzalez,
a Cuban boy whose mother drowned when a boat carrying illegal refugees
capsized on the way to Florida.
Hospital executives announce a nation-wide campaign to reduce mistakes
made by doctors, such as putting a "X” on the spot where a
surgeon is supposed to cut.
U.S. Navy ends live-fire exercises on the Puerto Rican island of
Seattle, Washington police haul off more than 300 demonstrators
against the World Trade Organization. The protestors were blocking
streets and forcing stores to close.
President Clinton signs a $390 billion budget.
President Clinton admits his affair with Monica Lewinsky.
Kathleen Willie, who accused President Clinton of groping her in
the White House, marries a Florida businessman.
The number of civilian casualties caused by the military crackdown
in Chechnya continues to increase.
Earthquake in Turkey kills thousands.
A tornado hits Nashville, Tennessee, leaving a path of destruction.
Moslem leaders accuse Israel of using poison gas on Palestinians.
Music executives label Hong Kong the center of $5 billion piracy
ring. Hong Kong authorities call the charges "unfair and simplistic."
Whoopi Goldberg hosts the Academy Awards, replacing Billy Crystal.
Mighty Joe Young, a remake of the 1949 film about an oversized
gorilla, opens at movie theaters.
Billy Joel begins what he calls "my final tour."
Except for the rock band The Goo Goo Dolls, all the nominees for
the Grammy Record and Album of the Year are women.
Los Angeles police shoot and kill a man carrying a toy gun at a
Halloween party. The officers were reportedly investigating a noise
complaint. The officer involved and the victim are black. The District
Attorney's office begins an investigation.
OPEC raises oil production two percent to decrease gasoline prices.
Republican leaders say they will negotiate but not capitulate to
President Clinton's end-of-the-session budget proposals.
Chinese promoters stage a cricket fight in Beijing. Thousands bet
on the event. Matches, held inside an eight-inch wide container,
end when one contestant tries to hop away or gets pinned by the
National and state polls in October indicate that bush is favored
by 47 percent of the voters, Gore by 46 percent, Nader by 4 percent
and Buchanan by 1 percent. Undecided, 2 percent.
Canadians charge Italian athletes with using drugs to increase
their physical performance at the Olympic games in Sydney, Australia.
No Italians fail drug tests.
The New York Yankees win their third straight World Series title
by defeating the New York Mets 4 games to 2.
More than 150 are killed in clashes between Jews and Palestinians
in Israel. The international community accuses Israel of using excessive
Wind-swept fires destroy 10 apartment buildings in South Boston,
sending more than 100 people into the street.
The Supreme Court rejects a claim by a high school student that
his First Amendment rights were violated when school officials suspended
him for displaying a 4-inch by 4-inch Confederate flag during a
Civil War reenactment.
Commenting on popular music, Bono of Irish supergroup U2 says,
“Pop music nowadays is dominated by too many bubblegum bands and
pretty young things. Gone are the days when the Beatles and the
Rolling Stones ruled the hit parades of the world. People are sick
to the teeth of processed and hyped pop bands. They want something
In an attack on the USS Cole, two suicide bombers kill 17 U.S.
sailors and injure 39. One bomber is identified as Egyptian. Members
of a Muslim militant group called Islamic Jihad are detained in
connection with the bombing. Several groups go by the name Islamic
Jihad, one Egyptian group and one Palestinian group. Detainees include
Yemenis, Egyptians, and Arabs. The 17 sailors killed by the attack
are honored by a standing ovation at the 4th game of the World Series
at New York's Shea Stadium.
The Persuasians, a black vocal-harmony group, produce an album
of Grateful Dead songs.
The 20th century ends at the last stroke of midnight on December
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Overton County News
415 West Main Street
P.O. Box 479
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